The Linji Lu and the Creation of Chan Orthodoxy

Author: Albert Welter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198044093
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The Linji lu, or Record of Linji, ranks among the most famous and influential texts of the Chan and Zen traditions. Ostensibly containing the teachings of the Tang dynasty figure Linji Yixuan, the text has generally been accepted at face value, as reliable records of the teachings of this historical figure. In this book, Albert Welter offers the first systematic study of the Linji lu in a western language. Welter places the Linji lu in its historical context, showing how the text was manipulated over time by the Linji faction. Rather than recording the teachings of the illustrious patriarch of legend, the text reflects the motivations of Linji-faction descendants in the Song dynasty (9601279). The story of the Linji lu is not simply the story of one heroic figure, Linji Yixuan, but the story of an entire movement that sought validation through retrospective image making. The success of this effort is seen in Chan's rise to prominence. Drawing on the findings of Japanese scholars, Welter moves beyond the minutiae of textual analysis to place the development of Linji lu within the broader forces shaping the development of the Chinese Records of Sayings literary genre as a whole.

Zongmi on Chan

Author: Jeffrey Lyle Broughton
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231513089
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Japanese Zen often implies that textual learning ( gakumon) in Buddhism and personal experience ( taiken) in Zen are separate, but the career and writings of the Chinese Tang dynasty Chan master Guifeng Zongmi (780-841) undermine this division. For the first time in English, Jeffrey Broughton presents an annotated translation of Zongmi's magnum opus, the Chan Prolegomenon, along with translations of his Chan Letter and Chan Notes. The Chan Prolegomenon persuasively argues that Chan "axiom realizations" are identical to the teachings embedded in canonical word and that one who transmits Chan must use the sutras and treatises as a standard. Japanese Rinzai Zen has, since the Edo period, marginalized the sutra-based Chan of the Chan Prolegomenon and its successor text, the Mind Mirror ( Zongjinglu) of Yongming Yanshou (904-976). This book contains the first in-depth treatment in English of the neglected Mind Mirror, positioning it as a restatement of Zongmi's work for a Song dynasty audience. The ideas and models of the Chan Prolegomenon, often disseminated in East Asia through the conduit of the Mind Mirror, were highly influential in the Chan traditions of Song and Ming China, Korea from the late Koryo onward, and Kamakura-Muromachi Japan. In addition, Tangut-language translations of Zongmi's Chan Prolegomenon and Chan Letter constitute the very basis of the Chan tradition of the state of Xixia. As Broughton shows, the sutra-based Chan of Zongmi and Yanshou was much more normative in the East Asian world than previously believed, and readers who seek a deeper, more complete understanding of the Chan tradition will experience a surprising reorientation in this book.

The Record of Linji

Author: Yixuan
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 0824833198
Format: PDF, Docs
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The Linji lu (Record of Linji) has been an essential text of Chinese and Japanese Zen Buddhism for nearly a thousand years. A compilation of sermons, statements, and acts attributed to the great Chinese Zen master Linji Yixuan (d. 866), it serves as both an authoritative statement of Zen's basic stand-point and a central source of material for Zen koan practice.One of the earliest attempts to translate this important work into English was by Sasaki Shigetsu (1882-1945), a pioneer Zen master in the U.S. and the founder of the First Zen Institute of America. At the time of his death, he entrusted the project to his wife, Ruth Fuller Sasaki. Determined to produce a definitive translation, Mrs. Sasaki assembled a team of talented young scholars, both Japanese and Western, who in the following years retranslated the text in accordance with modern research on Tang-dynasty colloquial Chinese.The materials assembled by Mrs. Sasaki and her team are finally available in the present edition of the Record of Linji. The notes, nearly six hundred in all, are almost entirely based on primary sources and thus retain their value despite the nearly forty years since their preparation.

Practicing Scripture

Author: B. J. ter Haar
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN:
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This is book is on a lay Buddhist movement, generally referred to as Non-Action Teaching, or Wuweijiao, that saw itself as part of the Chan tradition during the Ming Qing dynasties. It explores one of the few lay groups in traditional China that we can actually understand in some depth, both in terms of its religious contents and history, and its social environment.

Monks Rulers and Literati

Author: Albert Welter
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195175219
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Chan (Zen in Japanese) school began when, in seventh-century China, a small religious community gathered around a Buddhist monk named Hongren. Over the centuries, Chan Buddhism grew from an obscure movement to an officially recognized and eventually dominant form of Buddhism in China and throughout East Asia. It has reached international popularity, its teachings disseminated across cultures far and wide. In Monks, Rulers, and Literati, Albert Welter presents, for the first time in a comprehensive fashion in a Western work, the story of the rise of Chan, a story which has been obscured by myths about Zen. Zen apologists in the twentieth century, Welter argues, sold the world on the story of Zen as a transcendental spiritualism untainted by political and institutional involvements. In fact, Welter shows that the opposite is true: relationships between Chan monks and political rulers were crucial to Chan's success. The book concentrates on an important but neglected period of Chan history, the 10th and 11th centuries, when monks and rulers created the so-called Chan "golden age" and the classic principles of Chan identity. Placing Chan's ascendancy into historical context, Welter analyzes the social and political factors that facilitated Chan's success as a movement. He then examines how this success was represented in the Chan narrative and the aims of those who shaped it. Monks, Rulers, and Literati recovers a critical period of Zen's past, deepening our understanding of how the movement came to flourish. Welter's groundbreaking work is not only the most comprehensive history of the dominant strand of East Asian Buddhism, but also an important corrective to many of the stereotypes about Zen.

How Zen Became Zen

Author: Morten Schlutter
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 0824835085
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How Zen Became Zen takes a novel approach to understanding one of the most crucial developments in Zen Buddhism: the dispute over the nature of enlightenment that erupted within the Chinese Chan (Zen) school in the twelfth century. The famous Linji (Rinzai) Chan master Dahui Zonggao (1089-1163) railed against heretical silent illumination Chan and strongly advocated kanhua (kan) meditation as an antidote. In this fascinating study, Morten Schltter shows that Dahui's target was the Caodong (St) Chan tradition that had been revived and reinvented in the early twelfth century, and that silent meditation was an approach to practice and enlightenment that originated within this new Chan tradition. Schltter has written a refreshingly accessible account of the intricacies of the dispute, which is still reverberating through modern Zen in both Asia and the West. Dahui and his opponents' arguments for their respective positions come across in this book in as earnest and relevant a manner as they must have seemed almost nine hundred years ago. Although much of the book is devoted to illuminating the doctrinal and soteriological issues behind the enlightenment dispute, Schltter makes the case that the dispute must be understood in the context of government policies toward Buddhism, economic factors, and social changes. He analyzes the remarkable ascent of Chan during the first centuries of the Song dynasty, when it became the dominant form of elite monastic Buddhism, and demonstrates that secular educated elites came to control the critical transmission from master to disciple (procreation as Schltter terms it) in the Chan School.

Master Tang H i

Author: Nhất Hạnh (Thích.)
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781888375138
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Master Tang Hoi presents an overview of the life, work, and thought of Tang Hoi, the earliest known Buddhist meditation master of Vietnam. Tang Hoi was born in the region that is now Vietnam three hundred years before the well-known Indian monk Bodhidharma went to China. He is revered by Vietnamese Buddhists as the first patriarch of the Vietnamese Meditation school, and his life and work tell us much about the roots of Buddhism in Vietnam and southern China. The history of Buddhism in Vietnam spans two thousand years - nearly as long as Buddhism itself has been in existence. Due to Vietnam's geographical location between India and China, Vietnamese culture and religion were enriched by these two great cultures. As the life of Tang Hoi shows, Vietnam was the fertile soil for a unique form of Buddhism that blends the teachings of both the early Buddhist Theravadin tradition and the later Mahayana. In this work two of Tang Hoi's writings are presented, both composed sometime before 229 C.E. The first is an essay, "The Way of Realizing Meditation," which is an extract from his work, The Collection on the Six Paramitas. The second is his Preface to the Anapananusmriti Sutra (Sutra on the Full Awareness of Breathing). Tang Hoi's writings reveal to us how second- and third-century Vietnamese Buddhists practiced meditation, and how their practice of the teachings contained in the Theravadin sutras was infused with the spirit of Mahayana Buddhism.

Seeing through Zen

Author: John R. Mcrae
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520937074
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The tradition of Chan Buddhism—more popularly known as Zen—has been romanticized throughout its history. In this book, John R. McRae shows how modern critical techniques, supported by recent manuscript discoveries, make possible a more skeptical, accurate, and—ultimately—productive assessment of Chan lineages, teaching, fundraising practices, and social organization. Synthesizing twenty years of scholarship, Seeing through Zen offers new, accessible analytic models for the interpretation of Chan spiritual practices and religious history. Writing in a lucid and engaging style, McRae traces the emergence of this Chinese spiritual tradition and its early figureheads, Bodhidharma and the "sixth patriarch" Huineng, through the development of Zen dialogue and koans. In addition to constructing a central narrative for the doctrinal and social evolution of the school, Seeing through Zen examines the religious dynamics behind Chan’s use of iconoclastic stories and myths of patriarchal succession. McRae argues that Chinese Chan is fundamentally genealogical, both in its self-understanding as a school of Buddhism and in the very design of its practices of spiritual cultivation. Furthermore, by forgoing the standard idealization of Zen spontaneity, we can gain new insight into the religious vitality of the school as it came to dominate the Chinese religious scene, providing a model for all of East Asia—and the modern world. Ultimately, this book aims to change how we think about Chinese Chan by providing new ways of looking at the tradition.