The Dynamics of Judicial Independence

Author: Lorne Neudorf
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319498843
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book examines the legal principle of judicial independence in comparative perspective with the goal of advancing a better understanding of the idea of an independent judiciary more generally. From an initial survey of judicial systems in different countries, it is clear that the understanding and practice of judicial independence take a variety of forms. Scholarly literature likewise provides a range of views on what judicial independence means, with scholars often advocating a preferred conception of a model court for achieving ‘true judicial independence’ as part of a rule of law system. This book seeks to reorient the prevailing approach to the study of judicial independence by better understanding how judicial independence operates within domestic legal systems in its institutional and legal dimensions. It asks how and why different conceptualisations of judicial independence emerge over time by comparing detailed case studies of courts in two legally pluralistic states, which share inheritances of British rule and the common law. By tracing the development of judicial independence in the legal systems of Malaysia and Pakistan from the time of independence to the present, the book offers an insightful comparison of how judicial independence took shape and developed in these countries over time. From this comparison, it suggests a number of contextual factors that can be seen to play a role in the evolution of judicial independence. The study draws upon the significant divergence observed in the case studies to propose a refined understanding of the idea of an independent judiciary, termed the ‘pragmatic and context-sensitive theory’, which may be seen in contradistinction to a universal approach. While judicial independence responds to the core need of judges to be perceived as an impartial third party by constructing formal and informal constraints on the judge and relationships between judges and others, its meaning in a legal system is inevitably shaped by the judicial role along with other features at the domestic level. The book concludes that the adaptive and pragmatic qualities of judicial independence supply it with relevance and legitimacy within a domestic legal system.

Judicial Dissent in European Constitutional Courts

Author: Katalin Kelemen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317110048
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Dissent in courts has always existed. It is natural and healthy that judges disagree on legal issues of a certain importance and difficulty. The question is if it is reasonable to conceal dissent. Not every legal system allows judges to explain their disagreement to the public in a separate opinion attached to the judgment of the court. Most constitutional courts do. This book presents a comparative analysis of the practice of judicial dissent in constitutional courts from the perspective of the civil law tradition. It discusses the theoretical background, presents the history of the institution and today’s practice, thus laying down the basis for an accurate consideration of the phenomenon from a legal perspective.

Judicial Politics in Mexico

Author: Andrea Castagnola
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315520605
Format: PDF, ePub
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After more than seventy years of uninterrupted authoritarian government headed by the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), Mexico formally began the transition to democracy in 2000. Unlike most other new democracies in Latin America, no special Constitutional Court was set up, nor was there any designated bench of the Supreme Court for constitutional adjudication. Instead, the judiciary saw its powers expand incrementally. Under this new context inevitable questions emerged: How have the justices interpreted the constitution? What is the relation of the court with the other political institutions? How much autonomy do justices display in their decisions? Has the court considered the necessary adjustments to face the challenges of democracy? It has become essential in studying the new role of the Supreme Court to obtain a more accurate and detailed diagnosis of the performances of its justices in this new political environment. Through critical review of relevant debates and using original data sets to empirically analyze the way justices voted on the three main means of constitutional control from 2000 through 2011, leading legal scholars provide a thoughtful and much needed new interpretation of the role the judiciary plays in a country’s transition to democracy This book is designed for graduate courses in law and courts, judicial politics, comparative judicial politics, Latin American institutions, and transitions to democracy. This book will equip scholars and students with the knowledge required to understand the importance of the independence of the judiciary in the transition to democracy.

Judicial Review of Elections in Asia

Author: Po Jen Yap
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317361482
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the past century, Asian nations have experienced a wave of democratisation as countries in the region have gained independence or transitioned from authoritarian military rule towards more participatory politics. At the same time, there has been an expansion of judicial power in Asia, whereby new courts or empowered old ones emerge as independent constraints on governmental authority. This is the first book to assess the judicial review of elections in Asia. It provides important insights into how Asian courts can strategically engage with the political actors in their jurisdictions and contribute to a country’s democratic discourse. Each chapter in the book sheds light on the judicial review of elections and the electoral process in a specific Asian jurisdiction, including Common Law Asia, namely Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, and Singapore, as well as jurisdictions in Civil Law Asia, namely Indonesia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. It fills a gap in the literature by addressing a central challenge to democratic governance, namely the problem of partisan self-dealing in the electoral processes. By exploring the constantly evolving role of the courts in addressing pivotal constitutional questions, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of Asian Law, Governance and Politics.

Courts and Democracies in Asia

Author: Po Jen Yap
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107192625
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book illuminates how law and politics interact in the judicial doctrines and explores how democracy sustains and is sustained by the exercise of judicial power.

Gender Justice and Proportionality in India

Author: Juliette Gregory Duara
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351782614
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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For a judiciary in a democracy, dispensing justice is not only about doing justice, but also about showing that justice is being done; it is about giving reasons and creating a "culture of justification". The question becomes how to nurture such a culture. A number of liberal democratic jurisdictions have answered this question in part with the adoption of the multi-step method of evaluating the constitutionality of legislative infringements on fundamental rights widely known as Proportionality Analysis. Under Proportionality Analysis courts must engage in a structured process of reasoning. This book deals with Gender Justice and Proportionality Analysis in India. The author argues that the Supreme Court of India should consider adopting Proportionality Analysis for the adjudication of the fundamental right to sex equality in Indian courts. The book includes an analysis of Canadian and South African Proportionality Analysis and makes some suggestions on how an Indian Proportionality Analysis could be generated using this comparative investigation. Additionally, the book proposes ways of applying the effects of socio-political context on doctrine, as well as doctrine’s interpretive impact on adjudicated outcomes for gender, thus making a contribution to feminist jurisprudence. Finally, the author analyses Indian gender equality jurisprudence, demonstrating the inadequacies of the current doctrinal framework for achieving the goal of substantive gender equality and suggesting ways in which an Indian Proportionality Analysis might be fashioned to address these inadequacies. A novel examination of the gender situation in India in comparative perspective, this book will be of interest to academics in the field of Gender Studies, Asian and Comparative Law and South Asian studies.

Courts and Democracies in Asia

Author: Po Jen Yap
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107192625
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book illuminates how law and politics interact in the judicial doctrines and explores how democracy sustains and is sustained by the exercise of judicial power.

Competitive Authoritarianism

Author: Steven Levitsky
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139491482
Format: PDF
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Based on a detailed study of 35 cases in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and post-communist Eurasia, this book explores the fate of competitive authoritarian regimes between 1990 and 2008. It finds that where social, economic, and technocratic ties to the West were extensive, as in Eastern Europe and the Americas, the external cost of abuse led incumbents to cede power rather than crack down, which led to democratization. Where ties to the West were limited, external democratizing pressure was weaker and countries rarely democratized. In these cases, regime outcomes hinged on the character of state and ruling party organizations. Where incumbents possessed developed and cohesive coercive party structures, they could thwart opposition challenges, and competitive authoritarian regimes survived; where incumbents lacked such organizational tools, regimes were unstable but rarely democratized.

The Culture of Judicial Independence

Author: Shimon Shetreet
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9004215859
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume analyzes the development of a culture of Judicial Independence in comparative perspectives, to offer an examination of the conceptual foundations of the principle of judicial independence and to discuss in detail the practical challenges facing judiciaries in different jurisdictions.