The Chinese Mafia

Author: PENG. WANG
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780198758402
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Utilising individual interviews and focus group discussions, primarily from two Chinese cities, The Chinese Mafia: Organized Crime, Corruption, and Extra-Legal Protection contributes to the understanding of organized crime and corruption in the Chinese context, filing a significant gap in criminological literature, by investigating how extra-legal protectors-corrupt public officials and street gangsters-emerge, evolve and operate in a rapidly changing society. China's economic reforms have been accompanied by a surge of social problems, such as ineffective legal institutions, booming black markets and rampant corruption. This has resulted in the rise of extra-legal means of protection and enforcement: such is the demand for protection that cannot be fulfilled by state-sponsored institutions. This book develops a new socio-economic theory of mafia emergence, incorporating Granovetter's argument on social embeddedness into Gambetta's economic theory of the mafia, to suggest that the rise of the Chinese mafia is primarily due to the negative influence of guanxi (a Chinese version of personal connections) on the effectiveness of the formal legal system. This interplay has two major consequences. First, the weakened ability of the formal legal system sees street gangsters (the 'Black Mafia') providing protection and quasi law enforcement. Second, it allows for escalating abuse of power by public officials; as a result, corrupt officials (the 'Red Mafia') sell public appointments, exchange illegal benefits with businesses and protect local gangs. Together, these outcomes have seen street gangs shift their operations away from traditional areas (e.g. gambling, prostitution and drug distribution), whilst corrupt public officials have moved to offer illegal services to the criminal underworld, including the safeguarding organized crime groups and protection of illegal entrepreneurs. A study of crime and deviance located within a fast growing economy, The Chinese Mafia offers a unique understanding of these activities within contemporary Chinese society and a new perspective for understanding the interaction between corruption and organized crime. It will be of interest to academics and students engaged in the fields of criminology and criminal justice, sociology, and political science, with particular interest for those researching China and Chinese politics and governance.

The Triads as Business

Author: Yiu-kong Chu
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134696817
Format: PDF
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There is no doubt that the triads have become recognized as a sophisticated and international criminal force and, following the handover of Hong Kong to China, there have been increasing fears that their influence will spread to the West through emigration. This book investigates the reality behind the myth with a study of the Hong Kong triads, generally regarded as the headquarters of triad societies throughout the world. Yiu Kong Chu examines their origins, their organized extortion from legitimate businesses large and small, and their more recent moves into illegal activities such as drug trafficking, human smuggling and gambling. Contrary to the popular belief that Hong Kong triads are replacing the Italian Mafia as the most powerful criminal organization in the world, this book argues that Hong Kong triads may be declining, as other ethnic Chinese crime gangs emerge as powerful crime groups in Western societies. Based on interviews with ex triad members and victims of the triads, police from Hong Kong, mainland China and Europe, as well as documentary evidence The Triads as Business gives a vivid and compelling picture of the triads as part of a wider society.

Young Criminal Lives Life Courses and Life Chances From 1850

Author: Barry Godfrey
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198788495
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Young Criminal Lives is the first cradle-to-grave study of the experiences of some of the thousands of delinquent, difficult and destitute children passing through the early English juvenile reformatory system. The book breaks new ground in crime research, speaking to pressing present-dayconcerns around child poverty and youth justice, and resonating with a powerful public fascination for family history.Using innovative digital methods to unlock the Victorian life course, the authors have reconstructed the lives, families and neighbourhoods of 500 children living within, or at the margins of, the early English juvenile reformatory system. Four hundred of them were sent to reformatory and industrialschools in the north west of England from courts around the UK over a fifty-year period from the 1860s onwards. Young Criminal Lives is based on one of the most comprehensive sets of official and personal data ever assembled for a historical study of this kind. For the first time, these children canbe followed on their journey in and out of reform and then though their adulthood and old age. The book centres on institutions celebrated in this period for their pioneering new approaches to child welfare and others that were investigated for cruelty and scandal. Both were typical of the new kindof state-certified provision offered, from the 1850s on, to children who had committed criminal acts, or who were considered "vulnerable" to predation, poverty and the "inheritance" of criminal dispositions.The notion that interventions can and must be evaluated in order to determine "what works" now dominates public policy. But how did Victorian and Edwardian policy-makers and practitioners deal with this question? By what criteria, and on the basis of what kinds of evidence, did they judge their ownsuccesses and failures? Young Criminal Lives ends with a critical review of the historical rise of evidence-based policy-making within criminal justice. It will appeal to scholars and students of crime and penal policy, criminologists, sociologists, and social policy researchers and practitioners inyouth justice and child protection.

Justice Mercy and Caprice

Author: Ian O'Donnell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198798474
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Justice, Mercy, and Caprice is a work of criminal justice history that speaks to the gradual emergence of a more humane Irish state. It is a close examination of the decision to grant clemency to men and women sentenced to death between the end of the civil war in 1923 and the abolition ofcapital punishment in 1990.Frequently, the decision to deflect the law from its course was an attempt to introduce a measure of justice to a system where the mandatory death sentence for murder caused predictable unfairness and undue harshness. In some instances the decision to spare a life sprang from merciful motivations.In others it was capricious, depending on factors that should have had no place in the government's decision-making calculus. The custodial careers of those whose lives were spared repay scrutiny. Women tended to serve relatively short periods in prison but were often transferred to a religiousinstitution where their confinement continued, occasionally for life. Men, by contrast, served longer in prison but were discharged directly to the community. Political offenders were either executed hastily or, when the threat of capital punishment had passed, incarcerated for extravagant periods. This book addresses issues that are of continuing relevance for countries that employ capital punishment. It will appeal to scholars with an interest in criminal justice history, executive discretion, and death penalty studies, as well as being a useful resource for students of penology.

Sentencing Policy and Social Justice

Author: Ralph Henham
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191029041
Format: PDF, Docs
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Sentencing Policy and Social Justice argues that the promotion of social justice should become a key objective of sentencing policy, advancing the argument that the legitimacy of sentencing ultimately depends upon the strength of the relationship between social morality and penal ideology. It sheds light on how shared moral values can influence sentencing policy at a time when relationships of community appear increasingly fragmented, arguing that sentencing will be better placed to make a positive contribution to social justice if it becomes more sensitive to the commonly-accepted moral boundaries that underpin adherence to the 'rule of law'. The need to reflect public opinion in sentencing has received significant attention more recently, with renewed interest in jury sentencing, 'stakeholder sentencing', and the involvement of community views when regulating policy. The author, however, advocates a different approach, combining a new theoretical focus with practical suggestions for reform, and arguing that the contribution sentencing can make to social justice necessitates a fundamental change in the way shared values about the advantages of punishment are reflected in penal ideology and sentencing policy. Using examples from international, comparative and domestic contexts to advance the moral and ethical case for challenging the existing theories of sentencing, the book develops the author's previous theoretical ideas and outlines how these changes could be given practical shape within the context of sentencing in England and Wales. It assesses the consequences for penal governance due to increased state regulation of discretionary sentencing power and examines the prospects for achieving the kind of moral transformation regarded as necessary to reverse such a move. To illustrate these issues each chapter focuses on a particularly problematic area for contemporary sentencing policy; namely, the sentencing of women; the sentencing of irregular migrants; sentencing for offences of serious public disorder; and sentencing for financial crime.

The Good Cause

Author: Gjalt de Graaf
Publisher: Barbara Budrich Esser
ISBN: 9783866492639
Format: PDF, ePub
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From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different theoretical perspectives and offer an introduction to corruption theory. The Good Cause integrates research to date, delves into the dilemmas within theoretically framing and empirically studying corruption, and gives direction to future research. Understanding different theoretical perspectives illuminates new viewpoints on an important social phenomenon and the spectrum of possibilities available to us in treating it analytically and practically. `[...] This book gives us a challenging view of the emergence of key concepts of corruption and reform, of new perspectives on the origins of corruption problems and the nature of change, and of ways in which we need to adapt familiar ideas to new knowledge and circumstances.[...].' Michael Johnston, Colgate University `This book brings together world expertse to discuss the complex nature of corruption that undermines the legitimacy, performance, and credibility of all institutions. [...]'Gerald E. Caiden, University of Southern California `[...] So many have either ignored the challenge of understanding corruption or have failed trying to grasp its complexity that it is starting to read a book that takes the challenge head on and succeeds chapter by chapter.[...] This book is an invaluable asset to scholars and practitioners alike.' Frank Anechiarico, Hamilton College

The Urban Fabric of Crime and Fear

Author: Vania Ceccato
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940074210X
Format: PDF, Docs
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How does the city’s urban fabric relate to crime and fear, and how is that fabric affected by crime and fear? Does the urban environment affect one’s decision to commit an offence? Is there a victimisation-related inequality within cities? How do crime and fear interrelate to inequality and segregation in cities of developing countries? What are the challenges to planning cities which are both safe and sustainable? This book searches for answers to these questions in the nature of the city, particularly in the social interactions that take place in urban space distinctively guided by different land uses and people’s activities. In other words, the book deals with the urban fabric of crime and fear. The novelty of the book is to place safety and security issues on the urban scale by (1) showing links between urban structure, and crime and fear, (2) illustrating how different disciplines deal with urban vulnerability to (and fear of) crime (3) including concrete examples of issues and challenges found in European and North American cities, and, without being too extensive, also in cities of the Global South.

EU and International Crime Control

Author: Marc Cools
Publisher: Maklu
ISBN: 9046603288
Format: PDF, Docs
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In nowadays' globalised society an international exchange of ideas and views in indispensable within the field of social sciences, including criminology and criminal justice studies. The Research Group Governance of Security wants to foster contemporary international discourses on issues of crime and crime control. Therefore, GofS started a Research Paper Series, combining theoretical and empirical articles on issues reflecting the research activities of GofS. This research group is collaboration between Ghent University and Ghent University College in Belgium. GofS is concentrating its research around the study of administrative and judicial policy that has been developed with respect to new issues of crime and insecurity. Volume 4 focuses on topical issues in EU and International Crime Control. The first five articles deal with intrinsic EU criminal policy aspects, including in its transatlantic cooperation with the US.The remaining three articles deal with anti money laundering control, counter-strategies of criminal organisations and police torture.

The Dragon Syndicates

Author: Martin Booth
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 9780786708697
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Traces the more than two-thousand-year history of the Triads, the one-time Chinese secret society that has evolved into an international criminal fraternity, bound by ritual and archaic oaths, involved in world-wide extortion, gambling, prostitution, money laundering, fraud, narcotics, immigrant smuggling, and other criminal enterprises. Reprint.

Demeaned But Empowered

Author: Obika Gray
Publisher: University of West Indies Press
ISBN: 9789766401535
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Gray's central thesis asserts that the Jamaican state is a form of predatory state that incorporates contradictory social forces into an arrangement that is hierarchical, often brutal and ultimately debilitating to democracy. He introduces a series of constructs to support this argument, but the more interesting and novel theses are to be found in his vivid description of the social forces that resist the predatory state and how they have carved out a modicum of autonomy based on what he describes as an elaborate value system of badness/honour.