The Aarhus Convention at Ten

Author: Marc Pallemaerts
Publisher: Apollo Books
ISBN: 9789089520487
Format: PDF, Kindle
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On 30 October 2011, it will be exactly ten years ago that the Convention on Access to information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, signed by representative of 35 States and the European Community at a pan-European ministerial conference in the Danish city of Aarhus in 1998, entered into force. This multilateral treaty, negotiated under the auspices of the UN Economic Commission for Europe, represents the most comprehensive and ambitious effort to establish international legal standards in the field of citizens' environmental rights to date. Though some of these standards were inspired by earlier EU environmental legislation, many provisions of the Aarhus Convention went beyond the rights already guaranteed by the EU and compelled the European Commission to propose new legislature acts, most of which were adopted between 2003 and 2006, to bring EU environmental law up to the Convention's standards. Since its adoption over a decade ago, the Aarhus Convention, which now has 44 Contracting Parties in Europe, Central Asia and the Caucasus region, has had a considerable impact on national systems of environmental law and administrative practices in many countries of Europe and beyond, as well as the law and institutions of the European Union and even in other international organisations and fora. The contributions assembled in this book focus on various aspects of the relationship between the provisions of the Convention and the development of EU environmental law. They discuss the new legislative acts and amendments to existing legislation adopted by the EU institutions since 2003 in order to implement the Aarhus Convention, on such matters as access to envinonmental information and public participation as well as access to justice in respect of environmental impact assessment, strategic environmental assessment and integrated pollution prevention and control EU Member States. The relevant legislation also includes a regulation organising the application of the procedural rights guaranteed by the Aarhus Convention at the level of EU institutions and bodies. Other contributions address tensions that have arisen between normative developments within the framework of the Aarhus Convention and the internal legislation and policies of the EU. These concern contentious issues such as general access to justice in environmental matter-for which the Commission unsuccessfully proposed legislation to guarantee a minimum level of access to review precedures for environmental groups in the Member States-and judicial review by EU courts of acts and omissions of EU institutions. Another area of tension discussed in this volume concerns public participation in product-related regulatory decisions with respect to genetically modified organisms and chemicals. Together, the various contributions to this volume address synergies and conflicts across the three 'pillars' of the Aarhus Convention and examine the broader legal and institutional implications of these interactions for the development of both EU law and international environmental law.

European Environmental Law

Author: J. H. Jans
Publisher: Apollo Books
ISBN: 9789089521064
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"Taking into account new case law of the European courts, recent environmental directives and regulations, and the new provisions of the Lisbon Treaty, this book provides an in-depth analysis of important legal issues of European environmental law. What are the legal grounds for EU environmental policy, and on what principles are directives and regulations based upon? To what extent [are] EU environmental regulations more stringent [than] national environmental standards? What are the requirements the Court of Justice has imposed on the member states implementing environmental directives? How and to what extent can European environmental law be relied upon and challenged before national courts and the European courts? How do the Treaty rules on the internal market and undistorted competition interfere with national environmental policy? Answers to these and other questions can be found in this book. The book discusses all major environmental directives and regulations, integrating important judgments of the Court of Justice on their interpretations. Futhermore, national case law on the application of European environmental law is also ... taken into account"--Provided by publisher.

Energy Security for the EU in the 21st Century

Author: José María Marín Quemada
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113657512X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Recent developments like the rising trend in crude oil price, the international economic crisis, the civil revolts in Northern Africa and the Middle East, the nuclear threat in Japan after the tsunami, the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and the economic growth of emerging countries like China and India have a direct relation to the security of energy supply anywhere in the world. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of energy risks, energy scenarios and energy policies with special reference to the European Union and its member states, emphasizing the economic and geopolitical dimensions of energy security. The book assesses both quantitatively and qualitatively the socioeconomic and political risks related to the European energy supply, together with the EU’s energy relations with other countries. Two innovative indicators have been developed to estimate geopolitical energy risks and energy-related relations with other countries. The book also examines the process of convergence of member states’ energy security policies, the path towards a common European energy policy, and the process of Europeanization projected towards the energy corridors through which the EU receive energy imports. In addition, alternative strategic scenarios related to energy risk are assessed. Finally, guidelines for the EU’s energy policy and new strategies using energy corridors are suggested in order to maximize EU’s energy security. The book should be of interest to students and researchers across a wide range of subjects, including energy economics and policy, energy and foreign policy in the EU, energy policies in EU member states and several aspects related to international political economy.

T rex and the Crater of Doom

Author: Walter Alvarez
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400847400
Format: PDF, ePub
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Sixty-five million years ago, a comet or asteroid larger than Mount Everest slammed into the Earth, inducing an explosion equivalent to the detonation of a hundred million hydrogen bombs. Vaporized detritus blasted through the atmosphere upon impact, falling back to Earth around the globe. Disastrous environmental consequences ensued: a giant tsunami, continent-scale wildfires, darkness, and cold, followed by sweltering greenhouse heat. When conditions returned to normal, half the plant and animal genera on Earth had perished. This horrific chain of events is now widely accepted as the solution to a great scientific mystery: what caused the extinction of the dinosaurs? Walter Alvarez, one of the Berkeley scientists who discovered evidence of the impact, tells the story behind the development of the initially controversial theory. It is a saga of high adventure in remote locations, of arduous data collection and intellectual struggle, of long periods of frustration ended by sudden breakthroughs, of friendships made and lost, and of the exhilaration of discovery that forever altered our understanding of Earth's geological history.

The Capacity of Central and East European Interest Groups to Participate in EU Governance

Author: Daniela Obradovic
Publisher: ibidem-Verlag / ibidem Press
ISBN: 3838257502
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The integration of ten Central and East European countries (CEEC) into the EU as part of the 2004 and 2007 enlargements poses new challenges to EU governance, as the number of countries involved has thereby increased dramatically. However, the actors coming from the new member states also face challenges as they attempt to integrate themselves into EU decision-making processes. This book analyses the attempts of of civil society organisations from the Czech Republic and Poland to engage in EU governance in four policy fields. The guiding question is whether civil society organisations from the Central and East European member states have (or can gain) the capacity for meaningful participation in EU governance.After an introductory part, which outlines the analytical framework and offers a review of the literature, the actors and rules of EU governance are profiled. The third and fourth parts of the book then present case studies. The case studies address the civil society organisations most actively involved in EU governance, namely typical NGOs, trade unions, employers’ organisations and business associations.

Lobbying the European Union

Author: David Coen
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191607215
Format: PDF, Kindle
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It is universally accepted that there has been a huge growth in EU lobbying over the past few decades. There is now a dense EU interest group system. This entirely new volume, inspired by Mazey & Richardson's 1993 book Lobbying in the European Community, seeks to understand the role of interest groups in the policy process from agenda-setting to implementation. Specifically, the book is interested in observing how interest groups organise to influence the EU institutions and how they select different coalitions along the policy process and in different policy domains. In looking at 20 years of change, the book captures processes of institutional and actor learning, professionalisation of lobbying, and the possible emergence of a distinct EU public policy style. More specifically, from the actors' perspective, the editors are interested in assessing how the rise of direct lobbying and the emergence of fluid issue-based coalitions has changed the logic of collective action, and what is the potential impact of 'venue-shopping' on reputation and influence. From an institutional perspective, the contributors explore resource and legitimacy demands, and the practical impact of consultation processes on the emergence of a distinct EU lobbying relationship. It will be essential reading for academics and practitioners alike.

Accountability and Legitimacy in the European Union

Author: Anthony Arnull
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199257102
Format: PDF
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The European Union's growing accountability deficit threatens to undermine its legitimacy. This was acknowledged by the Member States in Nice in February 2001. Recognising the need to improve 'the democratic legitimacy and transparency of the Union and its institutions', they agreed to launch a debate on the Union's future. At Laeken in December 2001, the Member States decided that the debate should be carried forward in a Convention comprising the main parties involved. The debate willstart to crystallise in 2004, when negotiations on a new set of Treaty changes will begin. The outcome of those negotiations will profoundly affect the constitutional and political health of the Union as it confronts enlargement to the east and south and the challenges of the 21st century. However, the Union's accountability and legitimacy deficit is so deep-seated that it is unlikely to be eradicated completely by the changes agreed. The issue will therefore remain high on the political agenda for the foreseeable future. The contributors to this interdisciplinary collection of essays consider various aspects of accountability and legitimacy in the European Union. How open should the Union's decision-making be? What is the right balance between accountability and efficiency? Does the Union now need a formal constitution? How can respect for democracy, fundamental rights and the rule of law in the Union best be ensured? These are just some of the questions explored in this book.It will be of interest to anyone concerned with the future of Europe, from students and academics to policy-makers, and journalists

Interface Between EU Law and National Law

Author: G.K. van Hogendorp Centre for European Constitutional Studies. Colloquium
Publisher: ISBS
ISBN: 9789076871721
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"Proceedings of the annual colloquium of the G.K. van Hogendorp Centre for European Constitutional Studies"--T.p.