Street science

Author: Jason Corburn
Publisher: The MIT Press
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub
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An analysis of how local knowledge, based on the first-hand experience of community members, can strengthen science in environmental health decision making; with four case studies from a Brooklyn neighborhood.

Toward the Healthy City

Author: Jason Corburn
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262258099
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In distressed urban neighborhoods where residential segregation concentrates poverty, liquor stores outnumber supermarkets, toxic sites are next to playgrounds, and more money is spent on prisons than schools, residents also suffer disproportionately from disease and premature death. Recognizing that city environments and the planning processes that shape them are powerful determinants of population health, urban planners today are beginning to take on the added challenge of revitalizing neglected urban neighborhoods in ways that improve health and promote greater equity. In Toward the Healthy City, Jason Corburn argues that city planning must return to its roots in public health and social justice. The first book to provide a detailed account of how city planning and public health practices can reconnect to address health disparities, Toward the Healthy City offers a new decision-making framework called "healthy city planning" that reframes traditional planning and development issues and offers a new scientific evidence base for participatory action, coalition building, and ongoing monitoring. To show healthy city planning in action, Corburn examines collaborations between government agencies and community coalitions in the San Francisco Bay area, including efforts to link environmental justice, residents' chronic illnesses, housing and real estate development projects, and planning processes with public health. Initiatives like these, Corburn points out, go well beyond recent attempts by urban planners to promote public health by changing the design of cities to encourage physical activity. Corburn argues for a broader conception of healthy urban governance that addresses the root causes of health inequities.

Noxious New York

Author: Julie Sze
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262264792
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Racial minority and low-income communities often suffer disproportionate effects of urban environmental problems. Environmental justice advocates argue that these communities are on the front lines of environmental and health risks. In Noxious New York, Julie Sze analyzes the culture, politics, and history of environmental justice activism in New York City within the larger context of privatization, deregulation, and globalization. She tracks urban planning and environmental health activism in four gritty New York neighborhoods: Brooklyn's Sunset Park and Williamsburg sections, West Harlem, and the South Bronx. In these communities, activism flourished in the 1980s and 1990s in response to economic decay and a concentration of noxious incinerators, solid waste transfer stations, and power plants. Sze describes the emergence of local campaigns organized around issues of asthma, garbage, and energy systems, and how, in each neighborhood, activists framed their arguments in the vocabulary of environmental justice.Sze shows that the linkage of planning and public health in New York City goes back to the nineteenth century's sanitation movement, and she looks at the city's history of garbage, sewage, and sludge management. She analyzes the influence of race, family, and gender politics on asthma activism and examines community activists' responses to garbage privatization and energy deregulation. Finally, she looks at how activist groups have begun to shift from fighting particular siting and land use decisions to engaging in a larger process of community planning and community-based research projects. Drawing extensively on fieldwork and interviews with community members and activists, Sze illuminates the complex mix of local and global issues that fuels environmental justice activism.

Citizens Experts and the Environment

Author: Frank Fischer
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822326229
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The tension between professional expertise and democratic governance has become increasingly significant in Western politics. Environmental politics in particular is a hotbed for citizens who actively challenge the imposition of expert theories that ignore particular local knowledge that can help to relate technical facts to social values. In Citizens, Experts, and the Environment Frank Fischer explores this often strained interaction between technical environmental experts and citizen participants and proposes a new model of politics based on participatory inquiry and citizen-expert synergy. Where information ideologues see the modern increase in information as capable of making everyone smarter, others see the emergence of a society divided between those with and those without knowledge. Suggesting realistic strategies to bridge this divide, Fischer calls for meaningful non-expert involvement in policymaking and shows how the deliberations of ordinary citizens can help solve complex social and environmental problems by contributing non-technical knowledge to the professionals' expertise. While incorporating theoretical critiques of positivism and methodology, he also offers hard evidence to demonstrate that the ordinary citizen is capable of a great deal more participation than is generally recognised. Recent situations in Copenhagen, Denmark; Woburn, Massachusetts; and Kerala, India, serve as models of the participatory inquiry he proposes, showing how the local knowledge of citizens is invaluable to policy formation. In his conclusion Fischer moves his model from the context of environmental issues to the larger societal issues of deliberative structures and participatory democracy. This study will interest political scientists, public policy practitioners, sociologists, scientists, environmentalists, activists, urban planners, and public administrators along with those interested in understanding the relationship between democracy and science in a modern technological society.

Technoscience and Environmental Justice

Author: Gwen Ottinger
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 026201579X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Over the course of nearly thirty years, the environmental justice movement haschanged the politics of environmental activism and influenced environmental policy. In the process,it has turned the attention of environmental activists and regulatory agencies to issues ofpollution, toxics, and human health as they affect ordinary people, especially people of color. Thisbook argues that the environmental justice movement has also begun to transform science andengineering. The chapters present case studies of technical experts' encounters with environmentaljustice activists and issues, exploring the transformative potential of these interactions. Technoscience and Environmental Justice first examines the scientific practicesand identities of technical experts who work with environmental justice organizations, whether bybecoming activists themselves or by sharing scientific information with communities. It then explorescientists' and engineers' activities in such mainstream scientific institutions as regulatoryagencies and universities, where environmental justice concerns have been (partially)institutionalized as a response to environmental justice activism. All of the chapters grapple withthe difficulty of transformation that experts face, but the studies also show how environmentaljustice activism has created opportunities for changing technical practices and, in a few cases, haseven accomplished significant transformations. The hardcover edition does notinclude a dust jacket.

Growing Smarter

Author: Robert Doyle Bullard
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262524708
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Experts from academia, government, and nonprofit organizations offer an environmental justice perspective on Smart Growth, discussing equitable solutions to suburban sprawl and urban decay.

The Making of Grand Paris

Author: Theresa Enright
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262034697
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In 2007 the French government announced the "Grand Paris" initiative. This ambitious project reimagined the Paris region as integrated, balanced, global, sustainable, and prosperous. Metropolitan solidarity would unite divided populations; a new transportation system, the Grand Paris Express, would connect the affluent city proper with the low-income suburbs; streamlined institutions would replace fragmented governance structures. Grand Paris is more than a redevelopment plan; it is a new paradigm for urbanism. In this first English-language examination of Grand Paris, Theresa Enright offers a critical analysis of the early stages of the project, considering whether it can achieve its twin goals of economic competitiveness and equality. Enright argues that by orienting the city around growth and marketization, Grand Paris reproduces the social and spatial hierarchies it sets out to address. For example, large expenditures for the Grand Paris Express are made not for the public good but to increase the attractiveness of the region to private investors, setting off a real estate boom, encouraging gentrification, and leaving many residents still unable to get from here to there. Enright describes Grand Paris as an example of what she calls "grand urbanism," large-scale planning that relies on infrastructural megaprojects to reconfigure urban regions in pursuit of speculative redevelopment. Democracy and equality suffer under processes of grand urbanism. Given the logic of commodification on which Grand Paris is based, these are likely to suffer as the project moves forward.

Environmental Justice and Environmentalism

Author: Ronald D. Sandler
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262195526
Format: PDF, Docs
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Analysis and case studies from interdisciplinary perspectives explore the possibilityand desirability of collaboration between the grassroots-oriented environmental justice movement andmainstream environmental organizations.

Contested Illnesses

Author: Phil Brown
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520950429
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The politics and science of health and disease remain contested terrain among scientists, health practitioners, policy makers, industry, communities, and the public. Stakeholders in disputes about illnesses or conditions disagree over their fundamental causes as well as how they should be treated and prevented. This thought-provoking book crosses disciplinary boundaries by engaging with both public health policy and social science, asserting that science, activism, and policy are not separate issues and showing how the contribution of environmental factors in disease is often overlooked.

Neighborhood as Refuge

Author: Isabelle Anguelovski
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262026929
Format: PDF, Docs
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An examination of environmental revitalization efforts in low-income communities in Boston, Barcelona, and Havana that help heal traumatized urban neighborhoods.