Dolmens in the Levant

Author: James A. Fraser
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351375423
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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When Western explorers first encountered dolmens in the Levant, they thought they had discovered the origins of a megalithic phenomenon that spread as far as the Atlantic coast. Although European dolmens are now considered an unrelated tradition, many researchers continue to approach dolmens in the Levant as part of a trans-regional phenomenon that spanned the Taurus mountains to the Arabian peninsula. By tightly defining the term 'dolmen' itself, this book brings these mysterious monuments into sharper focus. Drawing on historical, archaeological and geological sources, it is shown that dolmens in the Levant mostly concentrate in the eastern escarpment of the Jordan Rift Valley, and in the Galilean hills. They cluster near proto-urban settlements of the Early Bronze I period (3700–3000 BCE) in particular geological zones suitable for the extraction of megalithic slabs. Rather than approaching dolmens as a regional phenomenon, this book considers dolmens as part of a local burial tradition whose tomb forms varied depending on geological constraints. Dolmens in the Levant is essential for anyone interested in the rise of civilisations in the ancient Middle East, and particularly those who have wondered at the origins of these enigmatic burial monuments that dominate the landscape.

The Wilderness of Zin

Author: Leonard Woolley
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781575060774
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In their famous six-weeks' survey of southern Palestine for the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1914, C. Leonard Woolley and T. E. Lawrence covered large tracts of the desert wilderness, studying monuments of numerous periods, from the prehistoric to the Islamic. Their records were first published in 1915. Not only was this work significant as an archaeological and historical record, but it also represented an astonishing feat on the part of Woolley and Lawrence, characteristic of the indefatigable spirit and polymathic interests of so many explorer-scholars in the Levant during the 19th and early 20th centuries. This new publication by Eisenbrauns includes previously unpublished letters and photographs, including several by T. E. Lawrence, and other material relating to the work still housed in the Palestine Exploration Fund's archives.

Life in Neolithic Farming Communities

Author: Ian Kuijt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306471663
Format: PDF, Docs
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Drawing on both the results of recent archaeological research and anthropological theory, leading experts synthesize current thinking on the nature of and variation within Neolithic social arrangements. The authors analyze archaeological data within a range of methodological and theoretical perspectives to reconstruct key aspects of ritual practices, labor organization, and collective social identity at the scale of the household, community, and region.

Stone Vessels in the Levant

Author: RachaelThyrza Sparks
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351547771
Format: PDF, Docs
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Examining stone vessels in the Levant during the 2nd millennium BC, the author explores the links between material culture and society through a comprehensive study of production and distribution. Extensively illustrated with 100 drawings, maps and charts, this volume includes a full object catalogue.This study represents the first comprehensive overview of the stone vessel assemblagesof the Levant in this period, a time which, fed by an increase of wealth and interregional trade, saw a growth in the popularity and variety of such vessels.Previously, our understanding of the varied functions and forms of these diverse vessels has been relatively underdeveloped. In this volume the author attempts to address this problem by creating a typological framework though which we can analyse variability and define essential characteristics of local stone vessel workshops. Only once this has been achieved is it possible to look at stone vessel production in its wider cultural context. Subsequent chapters explore broader themes, beginning within the workshops themselves, examining the links between craftsmen, their sources of raw materials, and the authorities that controlled and distributed their output. Considerations of the geographical and chronological distribution of such goods are then used to provide a regional perspective for the operation of these workshops, connections between them, and further insights into the nature of local and international trade. Finally, the objects themselves can be used to assess the impact of trends such as the growing Egyptianization of the ruling classes of the Levant at this time.

The Excavations of Beth Shemesh November December 1912

Author: Duncan MacKenzie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317247949
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In 1909 the Scottish archaeologist Duncan Mackenzie, Sir Arthur Evans’s right-hand man on the excavations of the legendary ‘Palace of Minos’ at Knossos since 1900, was appointed ‘Explorer’ of the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF). From the spring of 1910 until December 1912 he was engaged in archaeological fieldwork in Palestine, especially directing excavation campaigns at Ain Shems (biblical Beth Shemesh) – an important site in the Shephelah of Judah at the crossroads of Canaanite, Philistine, and Israelite cultures. Mackenzie published the results of his work in various issues of the Palestine Exploration Quarterly and Palestine Exploration Fund Annual. Because of a financial dispute with the PEF, however, he never submitted a detailed publication of his very last campaign at Beth Shemesh, conducted in November–December 1912. In 1992 Nicoletta Momigliano rediscovered Mackenzie’s lost manuscript on his latest discoveries at Beth Shemesh, which one of his nephews had kept for nearly 80 years at his old family home in the Scottish Highlands, in the small village of Muir of Ord. At about the same time, Shlomo Bunimovitz and Zvi Lederman initiated new excavations at Beth Shemesh which considerably changed previous interpretations of the site. This volume presents Mackenzie’s detailed discussion of his last excavations at Beth Shemesh in the light of these more recent discoveries. Although written over a century ago, Mackenzie’s manuscript deserves to be better known today; it not only provides significant new information on this important site but also constitutes an intriguing historical document, shedding light on the history of field archaeology and of biblical archaeology. Moreover, Mackenzie’s pioneering approach to archaeological fieldwork and the significance of his finds can often be better appreciated today, from the perspective of more recent developments and discoveries.

Guns Germs And Steel

Author: Jared Diamond
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 1448180201
Format: PDF, Mobi
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'A book of big questions, and big answers' Yuval Noah Harari, bestselling author of Sapiens WITH A NEW AFTERWORD FROM THE AUTHOR Why has human history unfolded so differently across the globe? In his Pulitzer Prize-winning book, Jared Diamond puts the case that geography and biogeography, not race, moulded the contrasting fates of Europeans, Asians, Native Americans, sub-Saharan Africans, and aboriginal Australians. An ambitious synthesis of history, biology, ecology and linguistics, Guns, Germs and Steel remains a ground-breaking and humane work of popular science.

Another Global City

Author: P. Saunier
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230613810
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This collection uses the transnational activities of municipal urban governments to historicize the origins and development of the global city, focusing on how urban problems were addressed with concepts that emerged from the "world in between" nations and cities.

Native Traditions in the Postconquest World

Author: Elizabeth Hill Boone
Publisher: Dumbarton Oaks
ISBN: 9780884022398
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"Important anthology marking, but not celebrating, the Columbian Quincentenary, directing attention to indigenous cultural responses to the Spanish intrusion in Mexico and Peru, utilizing as much as possible native documents and sources, and exploring men

Agriculture in Semi Arid Environments

Author: A.E. Hall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642673287
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The semi-arid zones of the world are fragile ecosystems which are being sub stantially modified by the activities of mankind. Increasing human populations have resulted in greater demands on semi-arid zones for providing human susten ance and the possibility that this may enhance desertification is a grave concern. These zones are harsh habitats for humans. The famines that resulted from drought during the late 1960's and the 1970's in the African Sahel illustrated the unreliability of present agricultural systems in this zone. Large fluctuations in ag ricultural production have occurred in semi-arid zones of Australia, North Ameri ca, and the Soviet Union due to periodic droughts, even though considerable ag ricultural technology has been devoted to agricultural development in these zones. The challenge to mankind is to manage these different semi-arid zones so that pro ductivity is increased and stabilized, and environmental deterioration is decreased. Irrigation can be used to increase and stabilize agricultural production in semi-arid zones as discussed in Volume 5 of this series, Arid Zone Irrigation. The present volume, Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments, focuses on dryland farming in semi-arid zones, and is relevant to the large areas of the world where rainfall is limiting and where water is not available for irrigation. This volume is designed to assist agricultural development in these areas and consists of reviews and analyses of available information by scientists working in Africa, Australia, and at the U ni versity of California.

Domesticating Space

Author: Edward Bruce Banning
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783980757836
Format: PDF, Docs
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Architektur - dörflicher Raum - Gesellschaft - Wohnraum.