Spin Squeezing and Non linear Atom Interferometry with Bose Einstein Condensates

Author: Christian Groß
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642256376
Format: PDF
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Interferometry, the most precise measurement technique known today, exploits the wave-like nature of the atoms or photons in the interferometer. As expected from the laws of quantum mechanics, the granular, particle-like features of the individually independent atoms or photons are responsible for the precision limit, the shot noise limit. However this “classical” bound is not fundamental and it is the aim of quantum metrology to overcome it by employing entanglement among the particles. This work reports on the realization of spin-squeezed states suitable for atom interferometry. Spin squeezing was generated on the basis of motional and spin degrees of freedom, whereby the latter allowed the implementation of a full interferometer with quantum-enhanced precision.

Interferometry with Interacting Bose Einstein Condensates in a Double Well Potential

Author: Tarik Berrada
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319272330
Format: PDF, Docs
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This thesis demonstrates a full Mach–Zehnder interferometer with interacting Bose–Einstein condensates confined on an atom chip. It relies on the coherent manipulation of atoms trapped in a magnetic double-well potential, for which the author developed a novel type of beam splitter. Particle-wave duality enables the construction of interferometers for matter waves, which complement optical interferometers in precision measurement devices, both for technological applications and fundamental tests. This requires the development of atom-optics analogues to beam splitters, phase shifters and recombiners. Particle interactions in the Bose–Einstein condensate lead to a nonlinearity, absent in photon optics. This is exploited to generate a non-classical state with reduced atom-number fluctuations inside the interferometer. This state is then used to study the interaction-induced dephasing of the quantum superposition. The resulting coherence times are found to be a factor of three longer than expected for coherent states, highlighting the potential of entanglement as a resource for quantum-enhanced metrology.

Third Generation Femtosecond Technology

Author: Hanieh Fattahi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319200259
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This thesis offers a thorough and informative study of high-power, high-energy optical parametric chirped pulse amplifications systems, the foundation of the next generation of femtosecond laser technology. Starting from the basics of the linear processes involved and the essential design considerations, the author clearly and systematically describes the various prerequisites of the nonlinear optical systems expected to drive attosecond physics in the coming decade. In this context, he gives an overview of methods for generating the broadband and carrier-envelope-phase stable seed pulses necessary for producing controlled electric-field waveforms in the final system; provides a guide to handling the high-power, high-energy pump lasers required to boost the pulse energy to the desired operating range; describes the design of the nonlinear optical system used to perform the amplification, including modes of operation for ultra-broadband infrared-visible pulses or narrowband (yet still ultrafast) pulses tunable over multiple octaves; and finally presents a prospective high-energy field synthesizer based upon these techniques. As such, this work is essential reading for all scientists interested in utilizing the newest generation of ultrafast systems.

Modern Challenges in Quantum Optics

Author: Miguel Orszag
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540419578
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Quantum Optics is a rapidly progressing field well suited to probe the many fundamental issues raised by the subtleties of quantum physics. This book consists of a collection of reviews and papers that highlight the most important challenges faced in this area of research, including topics such as cavity QED, quantum entanglement, decoherence, matter waves and nonlinear optics. It will be a source of reference for all those who wish to familiarize themselves with the latest developments in the field.

The Feynman Lectures on Physics

Author: Richard Phillips Feynman
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465024947
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"The whole thing was basically an experiment,” Richard Feynman said late in his career, looking back on the origins of his lectures. The experiment turned out to be hugely successful, spawning publications that have remained definitive and introductory to physics for decades. Ranging from the basic principles of Newtonian physics through such formidable theories as general relativity and quantum mechanics, Feynman's lectures stand as a monument of clear exposition and deep insight. Timeless and collectible, the lectures are essential reading, not just for students of physics but for anyone seeking an introduction to the field from the inimitable Feynman.

Laser Physics at the Limits

Author: Hartmut Figger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662048973
Format: PDF, ePub
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Published on the occasion of Theodor Hänsch's 60th Birthday emphasis is placed on precision related to results in a variety of fields, such as atomic clocks, frequency standards, and the measurement of physical constants in atomic physics. Furthermore, illustrations and engineering applications of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics are widely covered. It has contributions by Nobel prize winners Norman F. Ramsey, Steven Chu, and Carl E. Wieman.

Optical Magnetometry

Author: Dmitry Budker
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107010357
Format: PDF, Docs
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Comprehensive coverage of the principles, technology and diverse applications of optical magnetometry for graduate students and researchers in atomic physics.

Probabilistic and Statistical Aspects of Quantum Theory

Author: Alexander S. Holevo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9788876423789
Format: PDF
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This book is devoted to aspects of the foundations of quantum mechanics in which probabilistic and statistical concepts play an essential role. The main part of the book concerns the quantitative statistical theory of quantum measurement, based on the notion of positive operator-valued measures. During the past years there has been substantial progress in this direction, stimulated to a great extent by new applications such as Quantum Optics, Quantum Communication and high-precision experiments. The questions of statistical interpretation, quantum symmetries, theory of canonical commutation relations and Gaussian states, uncertainty relations as well as new fundamental bounds concerning the accuracy of quantum measurements, are discussed in this book in an accessible yet rigorous way. Compared to the first edition, there is a new Supplement devoted to the hidden variable issue. Comments and the bibliography have also been extended and updated.

Elements of Quantum Optics

Author: Pierre Meystre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540742115
Format: PDF, Docs
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With a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light and the input-output formalism, this fourth edition of the brilliant work on quantum optics has been much updated. It still gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing.

Non equilibrium Dynamics of One Dimensional Bose Gases

Author: Tim Langen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319185640
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This work presents a series of experiments with ultracold one-dimensional Bose gases, which establish said gases as an ideal model system for exploring a wide range of non-equilibrium phenomena. With the help of newly developed tools, like full distributions functions and phase correlation functions, the book reveals the emergence of thermal-like transient states, the light-cone-like emergence of thermal correlations and the observation of generalized thermodynamic ensembles. This points to a natural emergence of classical statistical properties from the microscopic unitary quantum evolution, and lays the groundwork for a universal framework of non-equilibrium physics. The thesis investigates a central question that is highly contested in quantum physics: how and to which extent does an isolated quantum many-body system relax? This question arises in many diverse areas of physics, and many of the open problems appear at vastly different energy, time and length scales, ranging from high-energy physics and cosmology to condensed matter and quantum information. A key challenge in attempting to answer this question is the scarcity of quantum many-body systems that are both well isolated from the environment and accessible for experimental study.