Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biofuel Production

Author: Pratima Bajpai
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811006873
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The book describes the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biomass-to-biofuel conversion processes, which is an important step in increasing ethanol production for biofuels. It also highlights the main challenges and suggests possible ways to make these technologies feasible for the biofuel industry. The biological conversion of cellulosic biomass into bioethanol is based on the chemical and biological breakdown of biomass into aqueous sugars, for example using hydrolytic enzymes. The fermentable sugars can then be further processed into ethanol or other advanced biofuels. Pretreatment is required to break down the lignin structure and disrupt the crystalline structure of cellulose so that the acids or enzymes can easily access and hydrolyze the cellulose. Pre-treatment can be the most expensive process in converting biomass to fuel, but there is great potential for improving the efficiency and lowering costs through further research and development. This book is aimed at academics and industrial practitioners who are interested in the higher production of ethanol for biofuels.

Green Biomass Pretreatment for Biofuels Production

Author: Tingyue Gu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400760523
Format: PDF, ePub
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The increasing global demand for energy requires a versatile approach, prompting many researchers to focus on renewable bioenergy from different biomasses, especially cellulosic biomass. Such biomasses can be agricultural wastes, municipal wastes or direct harvests from high-yield energy corps. If properly pre-treated, the subsequent enzyme hydrolysis step is much more effective and can effectively minimises the waste disposal. Green Biomass Pretreatment for Biofuels Production reviews a range of pretreatment methods such as ammonium fiber explosion, steam explosion, dilute acid hydrolysis, alkali hydrolysis, and supercritical carbon dioxide explosion focusing on their final sugar yields from hemicellulose, glucose yields from cellulose, as well as on their feasibilities in bioenergy production processes at various scales. This book emphasises the tactical mobile and on-farm scales applications that use green pretreatments and processing technologies without the need of on-site waste treatment. Because of the varieties of different biomasses, no single pretreatment is expected to be the universal choice. Some of the pretreatment methods present niche applications are also discussed.

Biermann s Handbook of Pulp and Paper

Author: Pratima Bajpai
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128142413
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Biermann's Handbook of Pulp and Paper: Raw Material and Pulp Making, Third Edition is a comprehensive reference for industry and academia covering the entire gamut of pulping technology. This book provides a thorough introduction to the entire technology of pulp manufacture; features chapters covering all aspects of pulping from wood handling at the mill site through pulping and bleaching and pulp drying. It also includes a discussion on bleaching chemicals, recovery of pulping spent liquors and regeneration of chemicals used and the manufacture of side products. The secondary fiber recovery and utilization and current advances like organosolv pulping and attempts to close the cycle in bleaching plants are also included. Hundreds of illustrations, charts, and tables help the reader grasp the concepts being presented. This book will provide professionals in the field with the most up-to-date and comprehensive information on the state-of- the-art techniques and aspects involved in pulp making. It has been updated, revised and extended. Alongside the traditional aspects of pulping and papermaking processes, this book also focuses on biotechnological methods, which is the distinguishing feature of this book. It includes wood-based products and chemicals, production of dissolving pulp, hexenuronic acid removal, alternative chemical recovery processes, forest products biorefinery. The most significant changes in the areas of raw material preparation and handling, pulping and recycled fiber have been included. A total of 11 new chapters have been added. This handbook is essential reading for all chemists and engineers in the paper and pulp industry. Provides comprehensive coverage on all aspects of pulp making Covers the latest science and technology in pulp making Includes traditional and biotechnological methods, a unique feature of this book Presents the environmental impact of pulp and papermaking industries Sets itself apart as a valuable reference that every pulp and papermaker/engineer/chemist will find extremely useful

Single Cell Protein Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

Author: Pratima Bajpai
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811058733
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book focuses on bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues into single-cell protein, which offers an alternative to conventional proteins (such as soybean meal, egg protein or meat protein in animal feed) that is not affected by the climate. It provides an overview of the general uses of lignocellulosic residues and their bioconversion into single-cell protein using microorganisms, as well as the recovery of the valuable by-products. It also explores the benefits and potential drawbacks of single-cell protein, with an emphasis on the economic advantages of such processes. Given its multidisciplinary scope, the book represents a valuable resource for academics and industry practitioners interested in the production of single-cell protein from lignocellulosic residues.

Bio based Polyols and Polyurethanes

Author: Yebo Li
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319215396
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This brief outlines the most recent advances in the production of polyols and polyurethanes from renewable resources, mainly vegetable oils, lignocellulosic biomass, starch, and protein. The typical processes for the production of polyols from each of the above mentioned feedstocks are introduced and the properties of the resultant polyols and polyurethanes are also discussed.

Surfaces and Interfaces in Natural Fibre Reinforced Composites

Author: Nicolas Le Moigne
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319714104
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book is addressed to Master and PhD students as well as researchers from academia and industry. It aims to provide the key definitions to understand the issues related to interface modifications in natural fibre based composites considering the particular supramolecular and micro- structures encountered in plant fibres. A particular emphasis is given to the modification and functionalization strategies of natural fibres and their impact on biocomposites behaviour and properties. Commonly used and newly developed treatment processes are described in view of scaling-up natural fibre treatments for their implementation in industry. Finally, a detailed and comprehensive description of the tools and methodologies developed to investigate and characterize surfaces and interfaces in natural fibre based composites is reviewed and discussed.

Carbon Fibre from Lignin

Author: Pratima Bajpai
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811042292
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book presents detailed information on the production and properties of carbon fibers derived from lignin precursors. Focusing on future directions in the carbon fiber industry, it also introduces a novel process for obtaining high-purity lignin, a key aspect in the manufacture of high-quality carbon fiber. Carbon fiber is currently the most preferred lightweight manufacturing material and is rapidly becoming the material of choice for manufacturers around the world. Although more than 80% of commercial carbon fiber is estimated to use PAN (polyacrylonitrile) as a precursor, carbon fiber manufactured from PAN is expensive and therefore its application is limited to high-performance structural materials. Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature after cellulose and offers a carbon-rich, renewable resource. As a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and the production of cellulosic ethanol, lignin is also available at low cost, making it an economically attractive alternative to PAN for the production of carbon fibers, as highlighted in this book. The information presented will be of interest to all those involved in the investigation of carbon fiber materials, carbon fiber manufacturers and carbon fiber users.

Advances in Bioethanol

Author: Pratima Bajpai
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 8132215842
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The book provides an updated and detailed overview on advances in bioethanol. It looks at the historical perspectives, chemistry, sources and production of ethanol and discusses biotechnology breakthroughs and promising developments. The book also provides the details regarding the uses, advantages, problems, environmental effects and characteristics of bioethanol as a fuel. In addition, it presents information about ethanol in different parts of the world and also highlights the challenges and future of ethanol.

Microalgae as a Feedstock for Biofuels

Author: Luisa Gouveia
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642179969
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This Brief provides a concise review of the potential use of microalgae for biofuel production. The following topics are highlighted: the advantages of microalgae over conventional biofuel-producing crops; technological processes for energy production using microalgae; microalgal biomass production systems, production rates and costs; algae cultivation strategies and main culture parameters; biomass harvesting technologies and cell disruption; CO2 sequestration; life cycle analysis; and algal biorefinery strategies. The conclusions section discusses the contribution of the technologies described to environmental sustainability and future prospects.

Efficiency of Biomass Energy

Author: Krzysztof J. Ptasinski
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118702107
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Details energy and exergy efficiencies of all major aspects of bioenergy systems Covers all major bioenergy processes starting from photosynthesis and cultivation of biomass feedstocks and ending with final bioenergy products, like power, biofuels, and chemicals Each chapter includes historical developments, chemistry, major technologies, applications as well as energy, environmental and economic aspects in order to serve as an introduction to biomass and bioenergy A separate chapter introduces a beginner in easy accessible way to exergy analysis and the similarities and differences between energy and exergy efficiencies are underlined Includes case studies and illustrative examples of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation biofuels production, power and heat generation (thermal plants, fuel cells, boilers), and biorefineries Traditional fossil fuels-based technologies are also described in order to compare with the corresponding bioenergy systems