Nixon Administration and the Middle East Peace Process 1969 1973

Author: Boaz Vanetik
ISBN: 9781845197209
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In the years following the Yom Kippur War, many studies addressed the internal and international political background prior to the war, attempting to determine causes and steps by political players and parties in Israel, Egypt, and the United States. But to date there has been no comprehensive study based on archival materials and other primary sources. Classified documents from that period have recently become available and it is now possible to examine in depth a crucial period in Middle East history generally and Israeli history in particular. The authors provide a penetrating and insightful viewpoint on the question that lies at the heart of the Israeli polity and military: Was an opportunity missed to prevent the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War? The book provides surprising answers to longstanding issues: How did National Security Adviser, Henry Kissinger, succeed in torpedoing the efforts of the State Department to bring about an interim agreement between Israel and Egypt in 1971? Would that agreement have allowed Israel to hold on to most of the Sinai Peninsula for many years and at the same time avert the outbreak of the war? Did Golda Meir reject any diplomatic initiative that came up for discussion in the years preceding the war? and Was the White House s Middle East policy throughout 1973 a catalyst for war breaking out?"

American Arabists in the Cold War Middle East 194675

Author: Teresa Fava Thomas
Publisher: Anthem Press
ISBN: 178308510X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book examines the careers of 53 area experts in the US State Department’s Middle East bureau during the Cold War. Known as Arabists or Middle East hands, they were very different in background, education, and policy outlook from their predecessors, the Orientalists. A highly competitive selection process and rigorous training shaped them into a small corps of diplomatic professionals with top-notch linguistic and political reporting skills. Case studies shed light on Washington’s perceptions of Israel and the Arab world, as well as how American leaders came to regard (and often disregard) the advice of their own expert advisors. This study focuses on their transformative role in Middle East diplomacy from the Eisenhower through the Ford administrations.

Advocating for Israel

Author: Natan Aridan
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498553788
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This timely comprehensive academic book’s analysis of the unique triangular relationship between Israel’s diplomatic representatives, pro-Israel advocates, and US administrations draws on a wealth of Hebrew and English primary documentation that includes; government archives, surveillance records, wiretappings, personal oral interviews, and diaries of key individuals. Natan Aridan demonstrates how a small new state succeeded in establishing a level of political, economic and military aid that has made for an alliance that is unique in the American experience. Revealed in considerable depth are the dilemmas facing Israeli and US leaders, and pro-Israel organizations and the extent to which individual Jewish leaders maneuvered as conduits between Israeli governments and US administrations, whose senior dramatis personae in turn attempted to influence, moderate, restrain, and change the course of policy decisions and actions. Each administration had multiple voices and international contingencies presented different challenges, all of which had a major impact in fluctuations, and shifts in policies toward Israel. There was nothing inevitable about military and financial support for Israel. It was only by the end of the period that a distinct pattern began to emerge. Eventual qualified US support took a long and complicated path developed over many decades on multidimensional levels. The book refutes insidious allegations that from Israel’s inception Jewish influence and a powerful Israel lobby hijacked US foreign policy to achieve unreserved military and financial support for Israel that undermined the best interests of the US. The author illustrates one of the poorly misunderstood aspects on the subject by demonstrating how Israeli governments were more astute and powerful than previous scholars have realized and that they were in fact pulling the strings far more than AIPAC and wealthy Jews. He also demonstrates that a contributing factor on the decision to aid Israel (understated in previous research) lay in Israel exploiting its ‘nuisance value.’

Why Dissent Matters

Author: William Kaplan
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
ISBN: 0773550844
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Frances Kelsey was a quiet Canadian doctor and scientist who stood up to a huge pharmaceutical company wanting to market a new drug - thalidomide - and prevented an American tragedy. The nature writer Rachel Carson identified an emerging environmental disaster and pulled the fire alarm. Public protests, individual dissenters, judges, and juries can change the world - and they do. A wide-ranging and provocative work on controversial subjects, Why Dissent Matters tells a story of dissent and dissenters - people who have been attacked, bullied, ostracized, jailed, and, sometimes when it is all over, celebrated. William Kaplan shows that dissent is noisy, messy, inconvenient, and almost always time-consuming, but that suppressing it is usually a mistake - it’s bad for the dissenter but worse for the rest of us. Drawing attention to the voices behind international protests such as Occupy Wall Street and Boycott, Divest, and Sanction, he contends that we don’t have to do what dissenters want, but we should listen to what they say. Our problems are not going away. There will always be abuses of power to confront, wrongs to right, and new opportunities for dissenting voices to say, "Stop, listen to me." Why Dissent Matters may well lead to a different and more just future.

Historical Dictionary of United States Middle East Relations

Author: Peter L. Hahn
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442262958
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This second edition of Historical Dictionary of United States-Middle East Relations contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and a bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on national leaders, non-governmental organizations, policy initiatives, and armed conflicts.

Encyclopedia of U S Foreign Relations

Author: Bruce W. Jentleson
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Prepared under the auspices of the Council on Foreign Relations, this comprehensive four-volume reference examines the political, economic, military, and cultural interactions of the federal government and the American people with nations and peoples abroad from 1776 to the present. It includes more than 1,000 signed, alphabetically arranged entries, ranging from brief biographical sketches to major essays on critical issues of U.S. foreign policy. The only encyclopedia on the subject of such breadth and authority, it is indispensable for scholars and students of American history, U.S. foreign relations, diplomatic history, and international law, as well as an important resource for government officials, policymakers, political scientists, journalists, and general readers interested in the history of America's involvements with the greater world community.

Nixon and Kissinger

Author: Robert Dallek
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0061832952
Format: PDF, Mobi
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With the publication of his magisterial biography of John F. Kennedy, An Unfinished Life, Robert Dallek cemented his reputation as one of the greatest historians of our time. Now, in this epic joint biography, he offers a provocative, groundbreaking portrait of a pair of outsize leaders whose unlikely partnership dominated the world stage and changed the course of history. More than thirty years after working side-by-side in the White House, Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger remain two of the most compelling, contradictory, and powerful men in America in the second half of the twentieth century. While their personalities could hardly have seemed more different, they were drawn together by the same magnetic force. Both were largely self-made men, brimming with ambition, driven by their own inner demons, and often ruthless in pursuit of their goals. At the height of their power, the collaboration and rivalry between them led to a sweeping series of policies that would leave a defining mark on the Nixon presidency. Tapping into a wealth of recently declassified archives, Robert Dallek uncovers fascinating details about Nixon and Kissinger's tumultuous personal relationship and the extent to which they struggled to outdo each other in the reach for achievements in foreign affairs. Dallek also brilliantly analyzes their dealings with power brokers at home and abroad—including the nightmare of Vietnam, the unprecedented opening to China, détente with the Soviet Union, the Yom Kippur War in the Middle East, the disastrous overthrow of Allende in Chile, and growing tensions between India and Pakistan—while recognizing how both men were continually plotting to distract the American public's attention from the growing scandal of Watergate. With unprecedented detail, Dallek reveals Nixon's erratic behavior during Watergate and the extent to which Kissinger was complicit in trying to help Nixon use national security to prevent his impeachment or resignation. Illuminating, authoritative, revelatory, and utterly engrossing, Nixon and Kissinger provides a startling new picture of the immense power and sway these two men held in changing world history.

Deterrence Theory

Author: Elli Lieberman
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 9780788127137
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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An investigation of cases of deterrence failure in the Middle East -- the 1969 War of Attrition, and the 1973 Yom Kippur War between Egypt and Israel. Contents: Chap. 1, "Designing Around" I: The "War of Attrition," Success or Failure? (balance of interests; the balance of capability; reputations; and crisis bargaining behavior); Chap. 2, "Designing Around" II: The Yom Kippur War, Success or Failure? (Egypt's goals and strategy; Stein's critique; the balance of capability; and crisis bargaining behavior)

Treacherous Alliance

Author: Trita Parsi
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300120578
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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U.S. foreign policy expert Trita Parsi untangles the complex and often duplicitous relations among Israel, Iran, and the United States.