Negotiating Health

Author: Pedro Roffe
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849772088
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In developing countries, access to affordable medicines for the treatment of diseases such as AIDS and malaria remains a matter of life or death. In Africa, for instance, more than one million children die each year from malaria alone, a figure which could soon be far higher with the extension of patent rules for pharmaceuticals. Previously, access to essential medicines was made possible by the supply of much cheaper generics, manufactured largely by India; from 2005, however, the availability of these drugs is threatened as new WTO rules take effect. Halting the spread of malaria and HIV/AIDS is one of the eight Millennium Goals adopted at the UN Millennium Summit, which makes this a timely and topical book. Informed analysis is provided by internationally renowned contributors who look at the post-2005 world and discuss how action may be taken to ensure that intellectual property regimes are interpreted and implemented in a manner supportive to the right to protect public health and, in particular, to promote access to medicines for all.

The Politics of Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines

Author: Valbona Muzaka
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230306152
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book shows why contests over intellectual property rights and access to affordable medicines emerged in the 1990s and how they have been 'resolved' so far. It argues that the current arrangement mainly ensures wealth for some rather than health for all, and points to broader concerns related to governing intellectual property solely as capital

Intellectual Property Pharmaceuticals and Public Health

Author: Kenneth C. Shadlen
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857938614
Format: PDF, Mobi
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'This impressive collection offers fascinating new perspectives on the impact of pharmaceutical patents on access to medicines in developing countries. The volume's editors have put together an important book that sets out clearly the challenges to public health in a wide range of national contexts. The book will be a valuable text for all scholars and decision-makers interested in the global politics of intellectual property rights and public health.' – Duncan Matthews, Queen Mary, University of London, UK This up-to-date book examines pharmaceutical development, access to medicines, and the protection of public health in the context of two fundamental changes that the global political economy has undergone since the 1970s, the globalization of trade and production and the increased harmonization of national regulations on intellectual property rights. With authors from eleven different countries presenting case studies of national experiences in Africa, Asia and the Americas, the book analyzes national strategies to promote pharmaceutical innovation, while at the same time assuring widespread access to medicines through generic pharmaceutical production and generic pharmaceutical importation. The expert chapters focus on patents as well as an array of regulatory instruments, including pricing and drug registration policies. Presenting in-depth analysis and original empirical research, this book will strongly appeal to academics and students of intellectual property, international health, international political economy, international development and law.

Balancing Wealth and Health

Author: Rochelle Cooper Dreyfuss
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199676747
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book examines the tension between intellectual property law and access to medicine in a set of developing countries caught between their international trade obligations and their commitment to the health of their citizens. It presents case studies, conducted with a common methodology, in eleven Latin American countries.

Intellectual Property Rights

Author: Mario Cimoli
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199660751
Format: PDF, Docs
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A volume on intellectual property rights, economic development, technical change, and innovation dynamics and learning. It considers implications of IP rights and regimes on learning and innovation in developing countries and on the effects on technical change on national growth strategies.

Advancing the Human Right to Health

Author: José M. Zuniga
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191637645
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Advancing the Human Right to Health offers a prospective on the global response to one of the greatest moral, legal, and public health challenges of the 21st century - achieving the human right to health as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and other legal instruments. Featuring writings by global thought-leaders in the world of health human rights, the book brings clarity to many of the complex clinical, ethical, economic, legal, and socio-cultural questions raised by injury, disease, and deeper determinants of health, such as poverty. Much more than a primer on the right to health, this book features an examination of profound inequalities in health, which have resulted in millions of people condemned to unnecessary suffering and hastened deaths. In so doing, it provides a thoughtful account of the right to health's parameters, strategies on ways in which to achieve it, and discussion of why it is so essential in a 21st century context. Country-specific case studies provide context for analysing the right to health and assessing whether, and to what extent, this right has influenced critical decision-making that makes a difference in people's lives. Thematic chapters also look at the specific challenges involved in translating the right to health into action. Advancing the Human Right to Health highlights the urgency to build upon the progress made in securing the right to health for all, offering a timely reminder that all stakeholders must redouble their efforts to advance the human right to health.

Intellectual Property at the Crossroads of Trade

Author: J. Rosen
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1781953392
Format: PDF
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Intellectual Property Law at the Crossroads of Trade focuses on the elements of intellectual property that impact on trade and competition. The book comprises thoughtful contributions on varying commercial aspects of IP, from parallel imports of pharmaceuticals to exhaustion of rights, and from trade in goods of cultural heritage to regulation of goods in transit. There is detailed discussion of licensing, including cross-border elements, online licensing, and the potential for harmonisation in Europe. This precedes a multi-layered analysis of the Anti-counterfeiting Trade Agreement. This stimulating collection of work will have strong appeal to academics and researchers interested in some of the most pressing issues in intellectual property law, as well as all those with an interest in the intersection of trade and IP.

Private Patents and Public Health

Author: Ellen F. M. 't Hoen
ISBN: 9789079700851
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Millions of people around the world do not have access to the medicines they need to treat disease or alleviate suffering. Strict patent regimes introduced following the establishment of the World Trade Organization in 1995 interfere with widespread access to medicines by creating monopolies that keep medicines prices well out of reach for many. 0The AIDS crisis in the late nineties brought access to medicines challenges to the public?s attention, when millions of people in developing countries died from an illness for which medicines existed, but were not available or affordable. Faced with an unprecedented health crisis ? 8,000 people dying daily ? the public health community launched an unprecedented global effort that eventually resulted in the large-scale availability of low-priced generic HIV medicines. 0But now, high prices of new medicines - for example, for cancer, tuberculosis and hepatitis C - are limiting access to treatment in low-, middle and high-income countries alike. Patent-based monopolies affect almost all medicines developed since 1995 in most countries, and global health policy is now at a critical juncture if the world is to avoid new access to medicines crises. 0This book discusses lessons learned from the HIV/AIDS crisis, and asks whether actions taken to extend access and save lives are exclusive to HIV or can be applied more broadly to new global access challenges.

Intellectual Property Human Rights and Development

Author: Duncan Matthews
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857931245
Format: PDF, ePub
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'Each chapter analyses both policy areas, access to medicines and agriculture/genetic resources. These three exceptionally rich, fieldwork-based case studies constitute the meat – and the principal contribution – of this book. . . The book marks a major contribution for the empirical material alone.' – Ken Shadlen, Journal of Development Studies 'Duncan Matthews has produced a first-rate, in-depth analysis of the role of NGOs in international and national intellectual property policy. Based on extensive primary research, this book provides a smart, thoughtful perspective on the role of key developing country NGOs, NGOs' relationships with national policymakers, and with multilateral institutions. Everyone interested in the interface of intellectual property policy and human rights, development, access to medicines, farmers' rights, and biodiversity should read this compelling account. I highly recommend this excellent contribution to our understanding.' – Susan K. Sell, George Washington University, US 'One of the features of international negotiations has been the increasing participation of non-governmental organizations. In this important book, Duncan Matthews shows the nature and extent of NGO influence in the negotiations over intellectual property. Written with great clarity and drawing on interview data and case studies, the book will be valuable to both scholars and practitioners working in international negotiation.' – Peter Drahos, Australian National University 'This book reveals how non-governmental organizations helped developing countries to better understand and mitigate the impact of the new standards of intellectual property protection that those countries were forced to adopt in the context of trade negotiations. Based on comprehensive and rigorous research, the author offers an outstanding piece that will not only be important for academics, policy-makers and students working in the area of intellectual property, but also for those more broadly interested in the implementation of human rights, coalition-building scenarios and framing strategies.' – Carlos Correa, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina 'This is a valuable corrective to a debate that is too often premised on the perspective of rich and developed countries. Focussing on the network of NGOs that supports developing countries, Duncan Matthews fills a major gap in the analysis of international disputes about intellectual property. His analysis rightly demolishes the position that developing countries have remained helpless in the face of developments in the global governance of IPRs, and helps explain how the global politics of IPRs is shifting.' – Christopher May, Lancaster University, UK This insightful and important new book explores the role played by non-governmental-organizations (NGOs) in articulating concerns at the TRIPS Council, the WIPO, the WHO, the CBD-COP and the FAO that intellectual property rights can have negative consequences for developing countries. Duncan Matthews describes how coalitions of international NGOs have influenced the way that the relationship between intellectual property rights and development is understood, often framing the message as a human rights issue to emphasize these concerns and ensure that access to medicines, food security and the rights of indigenous peoples over their traditional knowledge are protected. Based on extensive research undertaken in Geneva and in developing countries, the book also reveals how NGOs and broader social movements in Brazil, India and South Africa have played a crucial role in addressing the negative impacts of intellectual property rights by using human rights law as a practical tool before national courts and when seeking to influence national legislation and government policy. Intellectual Property, Human Rights and Development will appeal to academics, practitioners, activists, international negotiators and postgraduate students in intellectual property law, human rights law, the international political economy of intellectual property rights and development studies.

Promoting Access to Medical Technologies and Innovation

Author: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Intellectual Property Organization
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"This publication is the product of extensive collaboration between the WHO, WIPO and WTO Secretariats .... Research, authoring and substantive review was done by: Hans Georg Bartels [and six others]"--Page 6.