Mitigation of Landfill Gas Emissions

Author: Malgorzata Pawlowska
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0415630770
Format: PDF
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Landfilling has been and still remains an important means of municipal solid waste management but it poses a threat to the purity of the environment, especially air. In the coming years, a radical decline in the share of landfilling in waste disposal practices should not be expected. However, this is not to say that people are powerless in the face of the emission of harmful gases into the atmosphere, the spread of bioaerosols and odors. There are many ways of preventing the negative impact of landfills or protecting the environment against such an impact. Some of these preventive and protective measures are described in Mitigation of Landfill Gas Emissions. Special attention is given to the application of anaerobic, aerobic and semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills for control of landfill gas emission. Different types of biotic systems for the oxidation of methane and trace gases, such as biocovers, biofilters, and biowindows, are also presented.

Biotarp Design with Immobilized Methanotrophs for Landfill Methane Mitigation

Author: Fabien Besnard
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Methane gas is the second largest contributor to global warming (39), and landfills emit about 8% of the total global anthropogenic methane (7). While landfill gas is collected at many closed landfills, a certain amount of methane is escaping from open cells during filling. An alternative daily cover tarp containing methanotrophic bacteria (a biotarp) may be able to reduce daily methane releases from open landfill cells. Methanotrophs bacteria oxidize methane to water and carbon dioxide, and they use carbon from methane to construct new biomass. The objective of this research was to test several methanotroph-embedded geotextiles in batch and then under a synthetic landfill flux to identify some biotarp configurations that could reduce methane emissions. Two geotextiles manufactured by Ten Cate Nicolon, IR26 and S 1600, were selected from among nine candidate materials. Key performance criteria proved to be water holding capacity and an ability to support high levels of methane oxidation. Of the several combinations and configurations tested under continuous flow landfill simulation conditions, a four layer prototype consisting of IR26 and S1600 layered alternately and a mid-layer of shale (compacted clay) proved to perform best. The biotarp consumed 30% of influent methane (23.2 g.m[superscript]-2.d[superscript]-1) after 8 d, and one tarp yielded a peak uptake of 60%. The field testing site was an intermediate cover at a nearby landfill. Methane fluxes fluctuated widely both atop the intermediate cover (0 to 30 g.m[superscript]-2.d[superscript]-1), and directly atop the bared one-year old buried refuse (432 to 5337 g.m[superscript]-2.d[superscript]-1). A field testing protocol was developed for future assessment of the biotarp prototypes.

Management of Pollutant Emission from Landfills and Sludge

Author: Malgorzata Pawlowska
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482266040
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book gives an overview of recent findings on the mitigation of gas emission from landfills and sludge processing. Special attention is given to methane and the migration of POPs, heavy metal ions, ammonia and nitrate from landfills to the water-soil system and to the atmosphere. Strategies for mitigating the impact of pollution on ecosystems are also discussed. This book contains thirty-one selected papers presented at an International Workshop on Management of Pollutant Emission from Landfills and Sludge, Kazimierz Dolny, Poland,16-19 September 2006.

Pollution Control and Resource Recovery

Author: Zhao Youcai
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0128119012
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Pollution Control and Resource Recovery: Municipal Solid Wastes at Landfill provides pollution control and resource reuse technologies that cover the research and development achievements gained in recent years, providing the most up-to-date information on an emerging field in solid waste management. Provides technology and methods for the recycling of aged refuse from closed landfills Includes leachate generation processes in municipal solid waste landfills Presents novel approaches to landfilling for leachate and methane control, covering the research and development achievements gained in recent years

Methane and Climate Change

Author: Dave Reay
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849775095
Format: PDF
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"Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is estimated to be responsible for approximately one-fifth of man-made global warming. Per kilogram, it is 25 times more powerful than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time horizon -- and global warming is likely to enhance methane release from a number of sources. Current natural and man-made sources include many where methane-producing micro-organisms can thrive in anaerobic conditions, particularly ruminant livestock, rice cultivation, landfill, wastewater, wetlands and marine sediments. This timely and authoritative book provides the only comprehensive and balanced overview of our current knowledge of sources of methane and how these might be controlled to limit future climate change. It describes how methane is derived from the anaerobic metabolism of micro-organisms, whether in wetlands or rice fields, manure, landfill or wastewater, or the digestive systems of cattle and other ruminant animals. It highlights how sources of methane might themselves be affected by climate change. It is shown how numerous point sources of methane have the potential to be more easily addressed than sources of carbon dioxide and therefore contribute significantly to climate change mitigation in the 21st century."--Publisher's description.

Drawdown

Author: Paul Hawken
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 1524704652
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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• New York Times bestseller • The 100 most substantive solutions to reverse global warming, based on meticulous research by leading scientists and policymakers around the world “At this point in time, the Drawdown book is exactly what is needed; a credible, conservative solution-by-solution narrative that we can do it. Reading it is an effective inoculation against the widespread perception of doom that humanity cannot and will not solve the climate crisis. Reported by-effects include increased determination and a sense of grounded hope.” —Per Espen Stoknes, Author, What We Think About When We Try Not To Think About Global Warming “There’s been no real way for ordinary people to get an understanding of what they can do and what impact it can have. There remains no single, comprehensive, reliable compendium of carbon-reduction solutions across sectors. At least until now. . . . The public is hungry for this kind of practical wisdom.” —David Roberts, Vox “This is the ideal environmental sciences textbook—only it is too interesting and inspiring to be called a textbook.” —Peter Kareiva, Director of the Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, UCLA In the face of widespread fear and apathy, an international coalition of researchers, professionals, and scientists have come together to offer a set of realistic and bold solutions to climate change. One hundred techniques and practices are described here—some are well known; some you may have never heard of. They range from clean energy to educating girls in lower-income countries to land use practices that pull carbon out of the air. The solutions exist, are economically viable, and communities throughout the world are currently enacting them with skill and determination. If deployed collectively on a global scale over the next thirty years, they represent a credible path forward, not just to slow the earth’s warming but to reach drawdown, that point in time when greenhouse gases in the atmosphere peak and begin to decline. These measures promise cascading benefits to human health, security, prosperity, and well-being—giving us every reason to see this planetary crisis as an opportunity to create a just and livable world.

Investigation of Reuse of Coal Fly Ash to Mitigate Landfill Methane Gas

Author: Amin Homaei
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF
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Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG), contributing 32% of current climate forcing (US EPA, 2015). In 2014 the White House released the “Strategy to Cut Methane Emissions” as part of the Climate Action Plan. Landfills are one of the strategy's 4 key sectors, contributing 18% of US methane emissions (US EPA, 2013). Even when landfills capture methane and burn it to produce electricity, around 25% of methane still leaks through landfill covers (US EPA, 2005). In natural environments, iron oxides, manganese oxides, nitrates, and sulfates have been shown to stimulate microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) (Sivan et al., 2014). Adding fly ash, which can contain these components, to the soil of a landfill cover would thus be expected to increase AOM in the lower layers of the cover. The current work is a preliminary study to determine the effect of fly ash on microbial activity of methanotrophs in landfill's final cover. Two fly ash samples were selected based on their chemical components and adsorption capacity to be mixed with two final cover soil samples. Soil alone and 75% soil- 25% fly ash mixtures were put in batch reactors in contact with a CH4 and CO2 mixture, similar to the bio gas produced in landfills. To compare the performance of different samples, the concentration of CH4 and CO2 in the reactors was monitored for 40 days, via a gas chromatograph. The results indicate that adding fly ash to the soil would decrease the performance of microbes to oxidize methane. The concentrations of elements in the fly ash with the potential to oxidize methane (e.g. iron, manganese) were low; in addition, the large fraction of fly ash used (25%) substantially reduced the microbes available for methane oxidation. Fly ash or other wastes with a higher percent of constituents like iron and manganese should be tested, in lower fractions.

Waste Management Practices

Author: John Pichtel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466585188
Format: PDF, ePub
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Waste Management Practices: Municipal, Hazardous, and Industrial, Second Edition addresses the three main categories of wastes (hazardous, municipal, and "special" wastes) covered under federal regulation outlined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), an established framework for managing the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of several forms of waste. Focusing on integrating the technical and regulatory complexities of waste management, this book covers the historical and regulatory development of waste management and the management of municipal solid wastes. It also addresses hazardous wastes and their management, from the perspectives of identification, transportation, and requirements for generators as well as the treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Features: Covers the three main categories of wastes under regulation in the United States Incorporates an extensive set of problems, presented at the end of several chapters as appendices Includes numerous review/homework questions at the end of each chapter Highlights special categories of waste that may not fit precisely into either RCRA Subtitle D (Solid Wastes) or Subtitle C (Hazardous Wastes) In addition to the end-of-chapter problems provided in all chapters of this book, the text also contains practical exercises using data from field situations. Waste Management Practices: Municipal, Hazardous, and Industrial, Second Edition is an ideal textbook or reference guide for students and professionals involved in the management of all three categories of wastes.