MHC Class I Antigens In Malignant Cells

Author: Natalia Aptsiauri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461465435
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Abnormal expression of MHC class I molecules in malignant cells is a frequent occurrence that ranges from total loss of all class I antigens to partial loss of MHC specific haplotypes or alleles. Different mechanisms are described to be responsible for these alterations, requiring different therapeutic approaches. A complete characterization of these molecular defects is important for improvement of the strategies for the selection and follow-up of patients undergoing T-cell based cancer immunotherapy. Precise identification of the mechanism leading to MHC class I defects will help to develop new personalized patient-tailored treatment protocols. There is significant new research on the prevalence of various patterns of MHC class I defects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in different types of cancer. In contrast, few data is available on the changes in MHC class I expression during the course of cancer immunotherapy, but the authors have recently made discoveries that show the progression or regression of a tumor lesion in cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy depends on the molecular mechanism responsible for the MHC class I alteration and not on the type of immunotherapy used. According to this notion, the nature of the preexisting MHC class I lesion in the cancer cell has a crucial impact on determining the final outcome of cancer immunotherapy. This SpringerBrief will present how MHC class 1 is expressed, explain its role in tumor progression, and its role in resistance to immunotherapy. ​

Streptococcal Superantigens

Author: Anshu Babbar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319224557
Format: PDF
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This book provides ample knowledge and better understanding of Streptococcus pyogenes and their superantigens. Many illustrations make this a highly informative book. This book elucidates briefly Streptococcus pyogenes as a strict human pathogen possessing an array of virulence factors. These help in evading host immune responses such as by the activation of non-specific T-cell subpopulations by producing superantigens. This book mainly focuses on streptococcal superantigens and explains how they are different from conventional antigens. Moreover, it elaborates those diseases in which superantigens are actively involved. Useful aspects of superantigens and different therapeutic interventions to eradicate superantigens induced diseased are also discussed.

Breast Cancer Stem Cells Therapy Resistance

Author: Phuc Van Pham
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319220209
Format: PDF, Docs
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This volume thoroughly examines breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), from basic definitions to techniques for identifying, isolating, culturing, and targeting BCSCs for therapy; there is additional focus on pre-clinical and clinical results. The text begins with a discussion of breast cancer, focusing especially on the limitations of current therapies in its treatment. The subsequent chapters introduce and compare stem cells and cancer stem cells, describe properties and isolation techniques of BCSCs, and examine BCSC-targeting approaches. The text concludes with a discussion of controversy surrounding the BCSC hypothesis and of future research directions. Breast Cancer Stem Cells & Therapy Resistance, part of the SpringerBriefs in Stem Cells series, provides a succinct yet comprehensive overview of BCSCs for advanced students, graduate students and researchers as well as those working with breast cancer or stem cells in a clinical setting.

Interleukin 12 Antitumor Activity and Immunotherapeutic Potential in Oncology

Author: Witold Lasek
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319469061
Format: PDF
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This book discusses the immunotherapeutic potential of Interleukin 12 in the context of clinical oncology, as well as antitumor effects confirmed in preclinical studies and clinical trials in cancer immunotherapy. Due to its ability to activate both innate (NK cells) and adaptive (cytotoxic T lymphocytes) immunities, Interleukin 12 (IL-12) has been regarded as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy. However, despite the encouraging results in animal models, only very modest antitumor effects have been confirmed in early clinical trials. Recently, several clinical studies have been initiated in which IL-12 was applied as an adjuvant in cancer vaccines, in gene therapy including locoregional injections of IL-12 plasmid, and in the form of tumor-targeting immunocytokines (IL-12 fused to monoclonal antibodies).

Dendritic Cells Biophysics Tumor Microenvironment and Chinese Traditional Medicine

Author: Zhu Zeng
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401774056
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In this book, the authors discuss the biophysical characteristics of Dendritic cells (DCs) at various differentiation stages and in tumor microenvironments in detail. A type of Chinese traditional herb, which can improve the biophysical and microrheological properties of DCs, is also introduced. DCs are potent and specialized antigen-presenting cells that play a crucial role in initiating and amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The biophysical and microrheological characteristics of DCs are important for their motility and normal immune function. In tumor microenvironments, the motility and immune functions of DCs are impaired, but the mechanisms are largely unknown. This book offers researchers a comprehensive and deep insight into the biophysical characteristics of DCs and may also help to improve the efficiency of anti-tumor therapy based on DCs.

Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells and Cancer

Author: David Escors
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331926821X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The book starts with an introduction to and history of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), followed by a description of their differentiation, their role in the tumour microenvironment and their therapeutic targeting. It closes with an outlook on future developments. In cancer patients, myelopoiesis is perturbed and instead of generating immunogenic myeloid cells (such as dendritic cells, inflammatory macrophages and granulocytes), there is an increase in highly immature MDSCs. These cells are distributed systemically, resulting in general immunosuppression. They also infiltrate tumours, promoting their progression and metastasis by inhibiting the natural anti-tumour immune response. As these cells also interact with classical anti-neoplastic treatments, they have become major therapeutic targets in the pharmaceutical industry and in oncology research.

Cell Extracellular Matrix Interactions in Cancer

Author: Roy Zent
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441908148
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Cancer was thought to originate from alterations in intercellular signaling that resulted in the transformation of cells, their uncontrolled proliferation and metastasis. There is now an increasing body of evidence demonstrating that the surrounding matrix and cell-matrix interactions are also major players in this process. Cells adhere and receive signals from various extracellular matrices via transmembrane receptors, the best known of which are the heterodimeric glycoproteins, integrins.

Infection and Cancer Bi Directorial Interactions

Author: Michael R. Shurin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319206699
Format: PDF
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This unique book summarizes current knowledge on co-development of infectious diseases and cancer. It provides an overview of the complex and unique role of the immune system, inflammation, tumor-mediated immunosuppression and infection-induced immunomodulation in cancer and infection progression. Chapters are organized into themed parts, beginning with a look at the historical perspective of human tumor viruses, then aspects and examples of infection-related cancers and cancer-associated infections. The work discusses how cancer- and infection-associated immune responses interact in a bi-directorial fashion and how these interactions may evolve during both disease progression and in response to therapy. The phenomenon of independent development of cancer and infection in the same host, known as comorbid cancer-infection progression, is explored. Understanding the complex pathways involved in the progression of infection and cancer will allow the prevention of the development of certain types of cancer, as well as advancing prophylactic anti-cancer vaccines. Readers of this work will discover innovative approaches for multidisciplinary projects, focusing on the design of original therapeutic modalities for cancer therapy. The book will therefore be particularly valuable to scholars interested in cancer immunology and researchers and clinicians in the field of basic and applied immunobiology and microbiology.

Glioma Cell Biology

Author: Aleksi Sedo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3709114314
Format: PDF, Docs
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Gliomas are fatal diseases, but also represent good models for tumor research with the aim to eventually discover new and appropriate therapeutics against this disease. Glioma experimental research models are of help to investigate tumorigenesis (tumor stem cell theory versus "classical" opinions), tumor angiogenesis (since they are highly vascularized) and tumor invasion (since they grow without limits). In addition, they have a very special microenvironment (the brain) and limited tumor stroma cells (mainly microglia and endothelial cells). This book addresses the molecular mechanisms of the various tumor stages, describes the interaction with the tumor microenvironment and furthermore depicts experimental models for Glioma research and future therapeutic concepts. The book is composed and written for Scientists and Medical Doctors in Oncology, Neurosciences and Molecular Biology. ​

Avian Ancestors

Author: Federico Agnolin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400756372
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Although consensus exists among researchers that birds evolved from coelurosaurian theropods, paleontologists still debate the identification of the group of coelurosaurians that most closely approaches the common ancestor of birds. The last 20 years witnessed the discovery of a wide array of avian-like theropods that has considerably amplified the anatomical disparity among deinonychosaurians, some of which resemble Archaeopteryx more than Deinonychus. Among these newly discovered theropods that show remarkable bird-like characteristics are the four-winged theropods Microraptor and Anchiornis, and the unenlagiids Unenlagia, Buitreraptor, and Rahonavis. A bizarre group of minute-sized coelurosaurs, the Scansoriopterygidae, also exhibits some avian similarities that lead some authors to interpret them as more closely related to birds than other dinosaurs. With the aim to explore the phylogenetic relationships of these coelurosaurians and birds, we merged recently published integrative databases, resulting in significant changes in the topological distribution of taxa within Paraves. We present evidence that Dromaeosauridae, Microraptoria, Unenlagiidae, and Anchiornis + Xiaotingia form successive sister taxa of Aves, and that the Scansoriopterygidae are basal coelurosaurians not closely related to birds. The implications in the evolutionary sequence of anatomical characters leading to birds, including the origin of flight, are also considered in light of this new phylogenetic hypothesis.