Lithics

Author: William Andrefsky, Jr
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139448196
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book is a fully updated and revised edition of William Andrefsky Jr's ground-breaking manual on lithic analysis. Designed for students and professional archaeologists, this highly illustrated book explains the fundamental principles of the measurement, recording and analysis of stone tools and stone tool production debris. Introducing the reader to lithic raw materials, classification, terminology and key concepts, it comprehensively explores methods and techniques, presenting detailed case studies of lithic analysis from around the world. It examines new emerging techniques, such as the advances being made in lithic debitage analysis and lithic tool analysis, and includes a new section on stone tool functional studies. An extensive and expanded glossary makes this book an invaluable reference for archaeologists at all levels.

Pottery in Archaeology

Author: Clive Orton
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107433932
Format: PDF, ePub
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This revised edition provides an up-to-date account of the many different kinds of information that can be obtained through the archaeological study of pottery. It describes the scientific and quantitative techniques that are now available to the archaeologist, and assesses their value for answering a range of archaeological questions. It provides a manual for the basic handling and archiving of excavated pottery so that it can be used as a basis for further studies. The whole is set in the historical context of the ways in which archaeologists have sought to gain evidence from pottery and continue to do so. There are case studies of several approaches and techniques, backed up by an extensive bibliography.

Lithic Analysis

Author: George H. Odell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441990097
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This practical volume does not intend to replace a mentor, but acts as a readily accessible guide to the basic tools of lithic analysis. The book was awarded the 2005 SAA Award for Excellence in Archaeological Analysis. Some focuses of the manual include: history of stone tool research; procurement, manufacture and function; assemblage variability. It is an incomparable source for academic archaeologists, cultural resource and heritage management archaeologists, government heritage agencies, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students of archaeology focused on the prehistoric period.

Contemporary Lithic Analysis in the Southeast

Author: Philip J. Carr
Publisher: University of Alabama Press
ISBN: 0817356991
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Normal0falsefalsefalseEN-USX-NONEX-NONEMicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Representing work by a mixture of veterans and a new generation of lithic analysts, Contemporary Lithic Analysis in the Southeast explores fresh ideas while reworking and pushing the limits of traditional methods and hypotheses. The variability in the southeastern lithic landscape over space and through time makes it a dynamic and challenging region for archaeologists. Demonstrating a holistic approach and using a variety of methods, this volume aims to derive information regarding prehistoric lifeways from lithic assemblages. The contributors use data from a wide temporal span and a variety of sites across the Southeast, ranging from Texas to South Carolina and from Florida to Kentucky. Not merely cautionary tales, these case studies demonstrate the necessity of looking beyond the bag of lithic material sitting in the laboratory to address the key questions in the organization of prehistoric lithic technologies. How do field-collection strategies bias our interpretations? What is therelationship between technological strategies and tool design? How can inferences regarding social and economic strategies be made from lithic assemblages? Contributors William Andrefsky Jr. / Andrew P. Bradbury / Philip J. Carr / CarolynConklin / D. Randall Cooper / Jason L.Edmonds / Jay D. Franklin / Albert C.Goodyear III / Joel Hardison / Lucinda M.Langston / D. Shane Miller / George H.Odell / Charlotte D. Pevny / Tara L. Potts /Sarah E. Price / Douglas Sain / Sarah C.Sherwood / Ashley M. Smallwood /Paul Thacker

Sampling in Archaeology

Author: Clive Orton
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521566667
Format: PDF
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The first overview of sampling for archaeologists for over twenty years, this manual offers a comprehensive account of the application of statistical sampling theory that is essential to modern archaeological practice, at a range of scales, from the regional to the microscopic. It includes a discussion of the relevance of sampling theory to archaeological interpretation, and considers its fundamental place in fieldwork and post excavation study. It demonstrates the vast range of techniques that are available, only some of which are widely used by archaeologists. A section on statistical theory also reviews the latest developments in the field, and the presentation is clear and user friendly. The formal mathematics is available in an appendix, which is cross-referenced with the main text.

Lithic Debitage

Author: William Andrefsky, Jr.
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780874807684
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Debitage, the by-product flakes and chips from stone tool production, is the most abundant artifact type in prehistoric archaeological sites. For much of the period in which archaeology has employed scientific methodology, debitage has been discarded or ignored as debris. Now archaeologists have begun to recognize its potential to provide information about the kinds of tools produced and the characteristics of the technology being employed. Debitage can even provide clues regarding human organizational systems such as settlement mobility and site functions. This volume brings together some of the most recent research on debitage analysis and interpretation. It presents stone tool production experiments and offers detailed archaeological investigations for interpreting variability at the individual and collective levels. Although there are a number of volumes that focus on general analysis of lithic artifacts, this is the first volume to address debitage and should be of use to a wide range of archaeological researchers.

Environmental Archaeology

Author: Dena F. Dincauze
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521310772
Format: PDF, Docs
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Archaeologists today need a wide range of scientific approaches in order to delineate and interpret the ecology of their sites. But borrowing concepts from other disciplines demands a critical understanding, and the methods must be appropriate to particular sets of data. This book is an authoritative and essential guide to methods, ranging from techniques for measuring time with isotopes and magnetism to the sciences of climate reconstruction, geomorphology, sedimentology, soil science, paleobotany and faunal paleoecology. Their applications are illustrated by examples from the Paleolithic, through classical civilizations, to urban archaeology.

Understanding Stone Tools and Archaeological Sites

Author: Brian Patrick Kooyman
Publisher: UNM Press
ISBN: 9780826323330
Format: PDF, ePub
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This generously illustrated instructional guide explains the examination and analysis of stone tools and stone-tool sites anywhere in the world. Lithics expert Brian P. Kooyman explores the production, function, and context of stone tools to understand how human cultures used lithic tools at particular sites and to give readers the practical skills for lithic and site analysis. The guide covers manufacturing techniques, lithic types and materials, reduction strategies and techniques, worldwide lithic technology, production variables, meaning of form, and usewear and residue analysis. The author draws on extensive field work in North America, particularly at Head-Smashed-In in Alberta, Canada. However, the thery, methodology, and analysis applies to the investigation of stone tools and lithic sites worldwide.

Toward a Behavioral Ecology of Lithic Technology

Author: Todd A. Surovell
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
ISBN: 0816507384
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Modern humans and their hominid ancestors relied on chipped-stone technology for well over two million years and colonized more than 99 percent of the Earth's habitable landmass in doing so. Yet there currently exist only a handful of informal models derived from ethnographic observation, experiments, engineering, and "common sense" to explain variability in archaeological lithic assemblages. Because the fundamental processes of making, using, and discarding stone tools are, at root, exercises in problem solving, Todd Surovell asks what conditions favor certain technological solutions. Whether asking if a biface should be made thick or thin or if a flake should be saved or discarded, Surovell seeks answers that extend beyond a case-by-case analysis. One avenue for addressing these questions theoretically is formal mathematical modeling. Here Surovell constructs a series of models designed to link environmental variability to human decision making as it pertains to lithic technology. To test the models, Surovell uses data from the analysis of more than 40,000 artifacts from five Rocky Mountain and Northern Plains Folsom and Goshen complex archaeological sites dating to the Younger Dryas stadial (ca. 12,600-11,500 years BP). The primary result is the production of powerful new analytical tools useful to the interpretation of archaeological assemblages. Surovell's goal is to promote modeling and explore the general issues governing technological decisions. In this light, his models can be applied to any context in which stone tools are made and used.

Photography in Archaeology and Conservation

Author: Peter G. Dorrell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521455541
Format: PDF, Docs
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Describes the use and methods of photography in field archaeology, surveys, conservation and archaeological laboratories.