Lithic Debitage

Author: William Andrefsky, Jr.
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780874807684
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Debitage, the by-product flakes and chips from stone tool production, is the most abundant artifact type in prehistoric archaeological sites. For much of the period in which archaeology has employed scientific methodology, debitage has been discarded or ignored as debris. Now archaeologists have begun to recognize its potential to provide information about the kinds of tools produced and the characteristics of the technology being employed. Debitage can even provide clues regarding human organizational systems such as settlement mobility and site functions. This volume brings together some of the most recent research on debitage analysis and interpretation. It presents stone tool production experiments and offers detailed archaeological investigations for interpreting variability at the individual and collective levels. Although there are a number of volumes that focus on general analysis of lithic artifacts, this is the first volume to address debitage and should be of use to a wide range of archaeological researchers.

Lithic Debitage

Author: William Andrefsky
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780874806793
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Debitage, the by-product flakes and chips from stone tool production, is the most abundant artifact type in prehistoric archaeological sites. For much of the period in which archaeology has employed scientific methodology, debitage has been discarded or ignored as debris. Now archaeologists have begun to recognize its potential to provide information about the kinds of tools produced and the characteristics of the technology being employed. Debitage can even provide clues regarding human organizational systems such as settlement mobility and site functions. This volume brings together some of the most recent research on debitage analysis and interpretation. It presents stone tool production experiments and offers detailed archaeological investigations for interpreting variability at the individual and collective levels. Although there are a number of volumes that focus on general analysis of lithic artifacts, this is the first volume to address debitage and should be of use to a wide range of archaeological researchers.

Lithics

Author: William Andrefsky, Jr
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139448196
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is a fully updated and revised edition of William Andrefsky Jr's ground-breaking manual on lithic analysis. Designed for students and professional archaeologists, this highly illustrated book explains the fundamental principles of the measurement, recording and analysis of stone tools and stone tool production debris. Introducing the reader to lithic raw materials, classification, terminology and key concepts, it comprehensively explores methods and techniques, presenting detailed case studies of lithic analysis from around the world. It examines new emerging techniques, such as the advances being made in lithic debitage analysis and lithic tool analysis, and includes a new section on stone tool functional studies. An extensive and expanded glossary makes this book an invaluable reference for archaeologists at all levels.

Lithic Analysis

Author: George H. Odell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441990097
Format: PDF
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This practical volume does not intend to replace a mentor, but acts as a readily accessible guide to the basic tools of lithic analysis. The book was awarded the 2005 SAA Award for Excellence in Archaeological Analysis. Some focuses of the manual include: history of stone tool research; procurement, manufacture and function; assemblage variability. It is an incomparable source for academic archaeologists, cultural resource and heritage management archaeologists, government heritage agencies, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students of archaeology focused on the prehistoric period.

Romancing the Debitage

Author: Shaun P. Dinubilo
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781321738117
Format: PDF, Docs
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In 1976, two archaeologists from University of Idaho went to Bernard Creek Rockshelter in Hells Canyon National Recreational Area, Idaho to survey the damage done by people who were illegally mining the site for artifacts. Since the original excavation in 1976, very little academic work has been done on the site's collection that was recovered at a time pivotal to the understanding of lithic debitage. My main research questions are: is there any correlation between lithic typology and environmental changes, what was the function of the site, did site function change over time, and is there a change in lithic raw material that suggests a more curated or expedient behavior? The importance of the findings will be to help archaeologists better understand behavior of the Cascade archaeological phase and realize the importance environment had on a lithic system through the use of correlations.

Paint Rock V Lithic Debitage Analysis

Author: Laura K. Cannon
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781369720648
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Paint Rock V is a well-stratified rockshelter on the western slopes of the Bighorn Mountains in Wyoming. Lithic materials and radiocarbon dates from two excavation units suggest that hunter-gatherers occupied the site consistently from ~7731 cal yr BP to the Late Prehistoric Period, with two intensified occupations. This thesis compares the frequencies of debitage to the current prehistoric human population curve for the Bighorn Basin, showing that people occupied Paint Rock Canyon most intensively during times of increased aridity and low regional human populations. The results indicate that Paint Rock Canyon may have been an optimal place to forage during arid times. A comparison of the two intensified occupations shows no significant change in the use of the shelter over time; instead, the shelter was probably always used as a short-term logistical hunting camp.

Aurignacian Lithic Economy

Author: Brooke S. Blades
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306471884
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Drawing data from a classic region for Paleolithic research in Europe, this book explores how early modern humans obtained lithic raw materials and analyzes the different utilization patterns for locally available materials compared with those from a greater distance. The author locates these patterns within an ecological context and argues that early modern humans selected specific mobility strategies to accommodate changes in subsistence environments.

Toward a Behavioral Ecology of Lithic Technology

Author: Todd A. Surovell
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
ISBN: 0816599521
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Modern humans and their hominid ancestors relied on chipped-stone technology for well over two million years and colonized more than 99 percent of the Earth's habitable landmass in doing so. Yet there currently exist only a handful of informal models derived from ethnographic observation, experiments, engineering, and "common sense" to explain variability in archaeological lithic assemblages. Because the fundamental processes of making, using, and discarding stone tools are, at root, exercises in problem solving, Todd Surovell asks what conditions favor certain technological solutions. Whether asking if a biface should be made thick or thin or if a flake should be saved or discarded, Surovell seeks answers that extend beyond a case-by-case analysis. One avenue for addressing these questions theoretically is formal mathematical modeling. Here Surovell constructs a series of models designed to link environmental variability to human decision making as it pertains to lithic technology. To test the models, Surovell uses data from the analysis of more than 40,000 artifacts from five Rocky Mountain and Northern Plains Folsom and Goshen complex archaeological sites dating to the Younger Dryas stadial (ca. 12,600-11,500 years BP). The primary result is the production of powerful new analytical tools useful to the interpretation of archaeological assemblages. Surovell's goal is to promote modeling and explore the general issues governing technological decisions. In this light, his models can be applied to any context in which stone tools are made and used.

Innovation and Identity in Seneca Iroquois Lithic Debitage

Author: Matthew Raymond Krohn
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF
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This thesis is concerned with the chipped stone artifacts found at two Seneca Iroquois sites, excavated by Dr. Kurt Jordan of Cornell University. Both of these sites are located at the northern end of Seneca Lake, in the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York. The first of these sites, by historical chronology, is White Springs, occupied from 1688-1715, where the Senecas lived in longhouses behind a palisaded wall. The second site, Townley-Read, was occupied from 1715-1754, and is one of six sites which represent the dispersed community of New Ganechstage, where residents lived in smaller "short longhouses," as previously described by Jordan (2003, 2008). Conventional wisdom has de-emphasized stone tool use by indigenous peoples following initial European contact, assuming that stone tools are rapidly replaced by functionally-equivalent metal counterparts. At both of these sites, however, the lithic assemblages indicate that there was extensive stone tool use by the Senecas well into the 18th century, despite two centuries of sustained trade with European colonists. This paper will investigate the ongoing significance of stone tool use in the lives of Seneca people. By using multiple scales of analysis, including diahcronic, regional, and household scales, a more complete view of Seneca stone tool use is produced. Formal stone tool forms at the two sites are rare, and most likely played a secondary role to the use of expedient stone tools. Over 10,000 pieces of debitage were examined and cataloged with regard to several different variables, including morphology, dorsal flake scarring, and size, in order to provide aggregate statistics for each site and locus. Those few formal tools were also noted and analyzed, as well as the chipped stone tools (gunflints) which were introduced by Europeans. Using this methodology, patterns have been demonstrating variation between the sites and loci, indicating ongoing change and innovation in the assemblages, as reduction patterns were altered and debitage utilization intensified at Townley-Read. These stone tools are discussed in the end with the remainder of artifacts found at the site in order to illuminate the possible reasons for these choices, including as a result of and as a reaction to historical and political-economic developments, such as altered relationships with neighboring cultures and redesigned routes for the fur trade. Functionally equivalent tools made of material classes of European origin provide complementary contextual information, instead of an adversarial acculturative replacement. This serves to remind that stone tools were part of an extremely complex set of historical and socio-economic particulars, and were the product of informed, innovative decisions by the Seneca Iroquois.