Isotope Geochemistry

Author: Vladimir Kuleshov
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128031867
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Isotope Geochemistry: The Origin and Formation of Manganese Rocks and Ores is a comprehensive reference on global manganese deposits, including their origins and formations. Manganese is both a significant industrial chemical, critical for steel-making, and a strategic mineral, occurring in abundance only in certain countries. Furthermore, it is used effectively in CO2 sequestration, helping to mitigate greenhouse gas emission challenges around the world. For these reasons, exploration for manganese is very active, yet access to the primary academic literature can be a challenge, especially in field operations. Isotope Geochemistry brings this material together in a single source, making it the ideal all-in-one reference that presents the supporting data, analytics, and interpretation from known manganese deposits. This book is an essential resource for researchers and scientists in multiple fields, including exploration and economic geologists, mineralogists, geochemists, and environmental scientists alike. Features coverage of the formation, origins, and deposits of manganese rocks and ores globally, arming geoscientists with a thorough reference on the subject Includes 170 figures and illustrations that visually capture key concepts Includes elusive data with supporting analysis and interpretation of deposits in Russia, one of the most robust geographic locations in the world for manganese rock and ore research

Evolution of Early Earth s Atmosphere Hydrosphere and Biosphere

Author: Stephen E. Kesler
Publisher: Geological Society of America
ISBN: 0813711983
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"The history of Earth's early atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, from Hadean through Proterozoic time, is one of geology's enduring puzzles. Ore deposits provide important insights into this history because they contain elements and minerals that are highly sensitive to the geochemical environment in which they form. Just what these minerals tell us remains a matter of considerable debate, however. When and how did life develop, an oxygen-rich atmosphere form, and sulfate dominate the ocean? This volume contains reports on these questions from both sides of the aisle for iron and manganese formations, uranium paleoplacers and hydrothermal deposits, and exhalative sulfides and oxides."--Publisher's website.

Manganese Mineralization

Author: Keith Nicholson
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 9781897799741
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Manganese mineralization is diverse in occurrence, origin, mineralogy and geochemistry. These variations reflect differences in the processes of formation and depositional environments, which in turn are a response to changes in the land-ocean-atmosphere system over geological time. As such, manganese deposits can act as markers of major events in the dynamic evolution of the Earth's surface. Modern manganese accumulations provide insights into key factors controlling manganese deposition that cannot readily be determined from examination of ancient ores. A knowledge of oceanic currents, ocean chemistry or small-scale variation in physicochemical patterns of recent basins, for example, may extend our understanding of depositional processes in the past. Equally, the study of Precambrian deposits not only elucidates ancient mechanisms of manganese metallogenesis, but also helps to unravel the impact of comprehensive environmental changes on metal deposition on a scale not realised in younger geological times. The volume includes a review of the range of terrestrial Mn deposits and their relative abundance through geological time. This is followed by six papers on Precambrian deposits that cover the manner in which Mn mineralization reflects changes in planetary and environmental chemistry. Ten papers on Cenozoic deposits show the wide diversity of genetic types of the younger deposits, from nodules, crusts and stratabound layers, to deposits precipitated from hydrothermal fluids. Five papers in the last section consider the geochemistry and mineralogy of Mn deposits. Experimental and modelling approaches to Mn geochemistry and mineralogy can further aid our understanding of theformational and depositional processes involved and thereby our interpretation of deposit metallogenesis.

Economic Geology

Author: Walter L. Pohl
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 144439486X
Format: PDF
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Humanity’s ever-increasing hunger for mineral raw materials, caused by a growing global population and ever increasing standards of living, has resulted in economic geology becoming a subject of urgent importance. This book provides a broad panorama of mineral deposits, covering their origin and geological characteristics, the principles of the search for ores and minerals, and the investigation of newly found deposits. Practical and environmental issues that arise during the life cycle of a mine and after its closure are addressed, with an emphasis on sustainable and "green" mining. The central scientific theme of the book is to place the extraordinary variability of mineral deposits in the frame of fundamental geological processes. The book is written for earth science students and practicing geologists worldwide. Professionals in administration, resource development, mining, mine reclamation, metallurgy, and mineral economics will also find the text valuable. Economic Geology is a fully revised translation of the the fifth edition of the German language text Mineralische und Energie-Rohstoffe. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/pohl/geology. The author's website can be found at: http://www.walter-pohl.com.

Earth Processes

Author: Asish Basu
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
ISBN: 0875900771
Format: PDF, ePub
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 95. Publication of this monograph will coincide, to a precision of a few per mil, with the centenary of Henri Becquerel's discovery of "radiations actives" (C. R. Acad. Sci., Feb. 24, 1896). In 1896 the Earth was only 40 million years old according to Lord Kelvin. Eleven years later, Boltwood had pushed the Earth's age past 2000 million years, based on the first U/Pb chemical dating results. In exciting progression came discovery of isotopes by J. J. Thomson in 1912, invention of the mass spectrometer by Dempster (1918) and Aston (1919), the first measurement of the isotopic composition of Pb (Aston, 1927) and the final approach, using Pb-Pb isotopic dating, to the correct age of the Earth: close-2.9 Ga (Gerling, 1942), closer-3.0 Ga (Holmes, 1949) and closest-4.50 Ga (Patterson, Tilton and Inghram, 1953).

Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits

Author: Franco Pirajno
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642756719
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book is intended primarily for exploration geologists and post graduate students attending specialist courses in mineral exploration. Exploration geologists are engaged not only in the search for new mineral deposits, but also in the extension and re-assessment of existing ones. To succeed in these tasks, the exploration geologist is required to be a "generalist" of the Earth sciences rather than a specialist. The exploration geologist needs to be familiar with most aspects of the geology of ore deposits, and detailed knowledge as well as experience play an all important role in the successful exploration for mineral commodities. In order to achieve this, it is essential that the exploration geologist be up to date with the latest developments in the evolution of concepts and ideas in the Earth sciences. This is no easy task, as thousands of publications appear every year in an ever increasing number of journals, periodicals and books. For this reason it is also difficult, at times, to locate appropriate references on a particular mineral deposit type, although this problem is alleviated by the existence of large bibliographic data bases of geological records, abstracts and papers on computers. During my teaching to explorationists and, indeed, during my years of work as an explorationist, the necessity of having a text dealing with the fundamental aspects of hydrothermal mineral deposits has always been compelling. Metallic mineral deposits can be categorised into three great families, namely: (I) magmatic; (2) sedimentary and residual; (3) hydrothermal.

Geochemistry of Sedimentary Ore Deposits

Author: J.B. Maynard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461394937
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book is an outgrowth of my interest in the chemistry of sedimentary rocks. In teaching geochemistry, I realized that the best examples for many chemical processes are drawn from the study of ore deposits. Consequently, we initiated a course at The University of Cincinnati entitled "Sedimentary Ore Deposits," which serves as the final quarter course for both our sedimentary petrology and our ore deposits sequence, and this book is based on that teaching experience. Because of my orientation, the treatment given is perhaps more sedimentological than is usually found in books on ore deposits, but I hope that this proves to be an advantage. It will also be obvious that I have drawn heavily on the ideas and techniques of Robert Garrels. A number of people have helped with the creation of this book. I am especially grateful to my students and colleagues at Cincinnati and The Memorial University of Newfoundland for suffering through preliminary versions in my courses. I particularly thank Bill Jenks, Malcolm Annis, and Dave Strong. For help with field work I thank A. Hallam, R. Hiscott, J. Hudson, R. Kepferle, P. O'Kita, A. Robertson, C. Stone, and R. Stevens. I am also deeply indebted to Bob Stevens for many hours of insightful discussion.