Introduction to Biofuels

Author: David M. Mousdale
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 143981208X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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What role will biofuels play in the scientific portfolio that might bring energy independence and security, revitalize rural infrastructures, and wean us off of our addiction to oil? The shifting energy landscape of the 21st century, with its increased demand for renewable energy technology, poses a worrying challenge. Discussing the multidisciplinary study of bioenergy and its potential for replacing fossil fuels in the coming decades, Introduction to Biofuels provides a roadmap for understanding the broad sweep of technological, sociological, and energy policy issues that intermingle and intertwine. Copiously illustrated and with numerous examples, this book explores key technologies, including biotechnology, bioprocessing, and genetic reprogramming of microorganisms. The author examines the future of biofuels from a broader perspective, addressing the economic, social, and environmental issues crucial for studying the sustainable development of bioenergy. Each chapter begins with questions and provides the answers later in the chapter as key informational points. Embedded Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) sections provide detailed derivations and equations for a subset of topics that can be found easily as buzzwords in popular media and on web sites. Together, the STEM topics form a thread of essential technologies and a guide to how researchers have established quantitative parameters that are crucial to the ever-growing biofuels database. With so much information scattered throughout the literature, it is often difficult to make sense of what is real and what is an optimistic selling of ideas with no scientific credibility. This book does an excellent job of filtering through volumes of data, providing a historical perspective on which to anchor the information, and outlining the strengths and constraints of the different biofuels.

Alternative Fuels for Transportation

Author: A S Ramadhas
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439819580
Format: PDF, Mobi
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With existing petroleum oil and natural gas reserves enough for only several more decades, there is an imminent need for alternative energy sources. This critical situation has incited greater improvements in automotive technology and the increased use of nonconventional fuels. Alternative Fuels for Transportation covers the potential, production methods, properties, vehicle tests, merits, and drawbacks of alternative fuels. The esteemed editor highlights the importance of moving toward alternative fuels and the problems and environmental impact of depending on petroleum products. Each self-contained chapter focuses on a particular fuel source, including vegetable oils, biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, hydrogen, electric, fuel cells, and fuel from nonfood crops. For most of these fuels, production methods, storage, transportation and distribution, physiochemical properties, system modification, engine tests, economics, applications, safety aspects, material compatibility, and future scope are discussed. Although we now know that increases in greenhouse gases will contribute to global climate change, the transportation sector and decentralized power generation continue to heavily rely on petroleum products, particularly gasoline and diesel. Exploring how to counteract the world’s energy insecurity and environmental pollution, this book provides a comprehensive understanding of nonconventional fuel sources and technology.

Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ultrasound

Author: Zhen Fang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401796246
Format: PDF, Docs
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Conversion of biomass into chemicals and biofuels is an active research and development area as trends move to replace traditional fossil fuels with renewable resources. By integrating processing methods with ultrasound and microwave irradiation into biorefineries, the time-scale of many operations can be greatly reduced while the efficiency of the reactions can be remarkably increased so that process intensification can be achieved. “Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ultrasound” and “Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Microwave” are two independent volumes in the Biofuels and Biorefineries series that take different, but complementary approaches for the pretreatment and chemical transformation of biomass into chemicals and biofuels. The volume “Ultrasound” provides current research advances and prospects in mechanistic principles of acoustic cavitation in sonochemistry, physical and chemical mechanisms in biofuel synthesis, reactor design for transesterification and esterification reactions, lipid extraction from algal biomass, microalgae extraction, biodiesel and bioethanol synthesis, practical technologies and systems, pretreatment of biomass waste sources including lignocellulosic materials, manures and sludges for biogas production, vibration-assisted pelleting, combined chemical-mechanical methods, valorization of starch-based wastes and techno-economic methodology. Each of the 12 chapters has been peer-reviewed and edited to improve both the quality of the text and the scope and coverage of the topics. Both volumes “Ultrasound” and “Microwave” are references designed for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering and include introductory chapters to highlight present concepts of the fundamental technologies and their application. Dr. Zhen Fang is Professor in Bioenergy, Leader and founder of biomass group, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden and is also adjunct Professor of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China. Dr. Richard L Smith, Jr. is Professor of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Research Center of Supercritical Fluid Technology, Tohoku University, Japan. Dr. Xinhua Qi is Professor of Environmental Science, Nankai University, China.

Advancements in Algal Biofuels Research Recent Evaluation of Algal Biomass Production and Conversion Methods of into Fuels and High Value Co products

Author: Umakanta Jena
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889451984
Format: PDF, ePub
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Algae biomass has enormous potential to produce fuels and value-added products. Algae-derived biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to U.S. energy security and in mitigating the environmental concerns associated with conventional fuels. Algae’s ability to grow in low quality water/wastewater and to accumulate lipids has encouraged scientists to investigate algae as a medium for wastewater treatment and a potential source of fuel and bioproducts. There are growing demands for biomass-based transportation fuels, including biodiesel, bio-oil, biomethane, biohydrogen, and other high-value products (nutraceuticals, proteins, omega-3 etc.). Algae can help address these needs. The topic of algae energy includes the production and characterization of algae cultures, conversion into fuel feedstocks and high value products, and optimization of product isolation and use. In view of the increasing efforts in algae biomass production and conversion into energy and high-value products, the current research topic covers important aspects of algal strain selection, culture systems, inorganic carbon utilization, lipid metabolism and quality, biomass harvesting, extraction of lipids and proteins, and thermochemical conversion of algal feedstocks into biocrude.

Green Aviation

Author: Ramesh Agarwal
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118866509
Format: PDF, Docs
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Green Aviation is the first authoritative overview of both engineering and operational measures to mitigate the environmental impact of aviation. It addresses the current status of measures to reduce the environmental impact of air travel. The chapters cover such items as: Engineering and technology-related subjects (aerodynamics, engines, fuels, structures, etc.), Operations (air traffic management and infrastructure) Policy and regulatory aspects regarding atmospheric and noise pollution. With contributions from leading experts, this volume is intended to be a valuable addition, and useful resource, for aerospace manufacturers and suppliers, governmental and industrial aerospace research establishments, airline and aviation industries, university engineering and science departments, and industry analysts, consultants, and researchers.

Biofuels Engineering Process Technology

Author: Caye M. Drapcho
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 0071509925
Format: PDF, ePub
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New Process Technology for Developing Low-Cost, Environmentally Safe Biofuels Rising fuel prices have created a surge in the worldwide demand for biofuels made from plant and animal feedstocks. Filled with a wealth of illustrations, Biofuels Engineering Process Technology fully explains the concepts, systems, and technology now being used to produce biofuels on both an industrial and small scale. Written by a team of leading biofuels experts, this lucid guide presents a complete introduction to biofuels and biorefining processes...state-of-the-art information on biofuels processed from fermentations of ethanol, hydrogen, microbial oils, and methane...new material on the production of biodiesel from plant and algal oils...and the use of microbial fuel cells to produce bioelectricity. Biofuels Engineering Process Technology takes readers step by step through: The key concepts, systems, and technology of biofuels A review of the basic concepts of fermentation pathways and kinetic modeling of bioreactors Biofuels produced from fermentations of agricultural feedstocks and biomass-ethanol, hydrogen, microbial oils, and methane Biodiesel fuels processed from the chemical conversion of microbial and plant oils Bioelectricity produced from microbial fuel cells The latest sustainable biorefinery concepts and methods Inside This Cutting-Edge Biofuels Engineering Guide • Introduction • Fuels from Fermentations: Ethanol • Hydrogen • Microbial Oils • Methane • Fuel from Chemical Conversion of Plant and Algal Oils: Biodiesel • Microbial Fuel Cells • Technical Resources

Principles of Sustainable Energy Systems Third Edition

Author: Jana Milford
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781498788922
Format: PDF, Mobi
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PRINCIPLES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS, Third Edition, surveys the range of sustainable energy sources and the tools that engineers, scientists, managers, and policy makers use to analyze energy generation, usage, and future trends. The text provides complete and up-to-date coverage of all renewable technologies, including solar and wind power, biofuels, hydroelectric, nuclear, ocean power, and geothermal energy. The economics of energy are introduced, with the SAM software package integrated so students can explore the dynamics of energy usage and prediction. Climate and environmental factors in energy use are integrated to give a complete picture of sustainable energy analysis and planning.

Biofuels

Author: David M. Mousdale
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420051254
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Evaluating a wealth of quantitative data, Biofuels: Biotechnology, Chemistry, and Sustainable Development discusses different types of biofuels, the science behind their production, the economics of their introduction to the marketplace, their environmental impacts, and their implications for world agriculture. It broadens the discussion on biofuels beyond bioethanol and biodiesel, taking into account the data, ideas, and bioproducts that have appeared over the last 50 years. An Insider’s Look at the Biotech Industry Written by a seasoned expert in the biotech industry, the book analyzes in detail the present status and future prospects of biofuels, from ethanol and biodiesel to biotechnological routes to biohydrogen. It emphasizes the ways biotechnology can improve process economics as well as facilitate sustainable agroindustries and crucial elements of a biobased economy. The author also explores the additional innovations required in microbial and plant biotechnology, metabolic engineering, bioreactor design, and the genetic manipulation of novel biomass species of plants, such as softwoods and algae. The Role of Biofuels in the Future With over 1,000 references and nearly 200 graphs and tables of data, this well-researched, comprehensive work examines the past and present of various biofuels while considering the future of a biocommodity economy.

Energy Efficient Electrical Systems for Buildings

Author: Moncef Krarti
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 148225834X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Energy-Efficient Electrical Systems for Buildings offers a systematic and practical analysis and design approaches for electrical distribution and utilization systems in buildings. In addition to meeting the minimal safety requirements set by the National Electrical Code (NEC), the design approach consider the life-cycle cost analysis of designing energy efficient electrical distribution systems as well as integrating renewable energy technologies into both residential and commercial buildings. The book first provides a general overview of basic power systems commonly available in buildings. Then, detailed discussions of various components of typical building electrical distribution system are outlined through several chapters including transformers, protection devices, conductors and conduits, power and lighting panels, and motor control centers. The book includes several illustrations and numerous examples and analysis exercises are included, along with detailed design examples.

Aircraft Propulsion

Author: Saeed Farokhi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111880676X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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New edition of the successful textbook updated to include new material on UAVs, design guidelines in aircraft engine component systems and additional end of chapter problems Aircraft Propulsion, Second Edition follows the successful first edition textbook with comprehensive treatment of the subjects in airbreathing propulsion, from the basic principles to more advanced treatments in engine components and system integration. This new edition has been extensively updated to include a number of new and important topics. A chapter is now included on General Aviation and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Propulsion Systems that includes a discussion on electric and hybrid propulsion. Propeller theory is added to the presentation of turboprop engines. A new section in cycle analysis treats Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) and Geared Turbofan engines. New material on drop-in biofuels and design for sustainability is added to refl ect the FAA’s 2025 Vision. In addition, the design guidelines in aircraft engine components are expanded to make the book user friendly for engine designers. Extensive review material and derivations are included to help the reader navigate through the subject with ease. Key features: General Aviation and UAV Propulsion Systems are presented in a new chapter Discusses Ultra-High Bypass and Geared Turbofan engines Presents alternative drop-in jet fuels Expands on engine components' design guidelines The end-of-chapter problem sets have been increased by nearly 50% and solutions are available on a companion website Presents a new section on engine performance testing and instrumentation Includes a new 10-Minute Quiz appendix (with 45 quizzes) that can be used as a continuous assessment and improvement tool in teaching/learning propulsion principles and concepts Includes a new appendix on Rules of Thumb and Trends in aircraft propulsion Aircraft Propulsion, Second Edition is a must-have textbook for graduate and undergraduate students, and is also an excellent source of information for researchers and practitioners in the aerospace and power industry.