Governing Marine Protected Areas

Author: Peter J.S. Jones
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113645523X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In this innovative volume, the author addresses some important challenges related to the effective and equitable governance of marine protected areas (MPAs). These challenges are explored through a study of 20 MPA case studies from around the world. A novel governance analysis framework is employed to address some key questions: How can top-down and bottom-up approaches to MPA governance be combined? What does this mean, in reality, in different contexts? How can we develop and implement governance approaches that are both effective in achieving conservation objectives and equitable in fairly sharing associated costs and benefits? The author explores the many issues that these questions raise, as well as exploring options for addressing them. A key theme is that MPA governance needs to combine people, state and market approaches, rather than being based on one approach and its related ideals. Building on a critique of the governance analysis framework developed for common-pool resources, the author puts forward a more holistic and less prescriptive framework for deconstructing and analyzing the governance of MPAs. This inter-disciplinary analysis is aimed at supporting the development of MPA governance approaches that build social-ecological resilience through both institutional and biological diversity. It will also make a significant contribution to wider debates on natural resource governance, as it poses some critical questions for contemporary approaches to related research and offers an alternative theoretical and empirical approach.

The Controversy over Marine Protected Areas

Author: Alex Caveen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331910957X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is a critical analysis of the concept of marine protected areas (MPAs) particularly as a tool for marine resource management. It explains the reasons for the extraordinary rise of MPAs to the top of the political agenda for marine policy, and evaluates the scientific credentials for the unprecedented popularity of this management option. The book reveals the role played by two policy networks – epistemic community and advocacy coalition – in promoting the notion of MPA, showing how advocacy for marine reserves by some scientists based on limited evidence of fisheries benefits has led to a blurring of the boundary between science and politics. Second, the study investigates whether the scientific consensus on MPAs has resulted in a publication bias, whereby pro-MPA articles are given preferential treatment by peer-reviewed academic journals, though it found only limited evidence of such a bias. Third, the project conducts a systematic review of the literature to determine the ecological effects of MPAs, and reaches the conclusion that there is little proof of a positive impact on finfish populations in temperate waters. Fourth, the study uses discourse analysis to trace the effects of a public campaigning policy network on marine conservation zones (MCZs) in England, which demonstrated that there was considerable confusion over the objectives that MCZs were being designated to achieve. The book’s conclusion is that the MPA issue shows the power of ideas in marine governance, but offers a caution that scientists who cross the line between science and politics risk exaggerating the benefits of MPAs by glossing over uncertainties in the data, which may antagonise the fishing industry, delay resolution of the MPA issue, and weaken public faith in marine science if and when the benefits of MCZs are subsequently seen to be limited.

Routledge Handbook of Ocean Resources and Management

Author: Hance D. Smith
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136294821
Format: PDF, ePub
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This comprehensive handbook provides a global overview of ocean resources and management by focusing on critical issues relating to human development and the marine environment, their interrelationships as expressed through the uses of the sea as a resource, and the regional expression of these themes. The underlying approach is geographical, with prominence given to the biosphere, political arrangements and regional patterns – all considered to be especially crucial to the human understanding required for the use and management of the world's oceans. Part one addresses key themes in our knowledge of relationships between people and the sea on a global scale, including economic and political issues, and understanding and managing marine environments. Part two provides a systematic review of the uses of the sea, grouped into food, ocean space, materials and energy, and the sea as an environmental resource. Part three on the geography of the sea considers management strategies especially related to the state system, and regional management developments in both core economic regions and the developing periphery. The primary themes within each chapter are governance (including institutional and legal bases); policy – sets of ideas governing management; and management, both technical and general.

Marine Transboundary Conservation and Protected Areas

Author: Peter Mackelworth
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317530454
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The marine environment does not naturally respect arbitrary international boundaries. The establishment and management of transboundary marine protected areas therefore presents major governance challenges. This book analyses a series of marine transboundary conservation initiatives embedded in varying contextual situations to examine the underlying reasons for their success or failure. Utilising an adapted ‘pathways of influence’ framework, it provides insights into the development of marine transboundary conservation initiatives looking at the effectiveness of international rules, international norms and discourse, market forces and direct access to policy making. Examples come from a wide range of jurisdictions, including territorial seas, continental shelves, exclusive economic zones and areas beyond national jurisdiction. Case studies include initiatives in the Coral Triangle, West Africa, Central America, the Wadden Sea, the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. In addition the authors assess the potential for developing wider international cooperation as a result of relationships forged though involvement within these marine transboundary conservation initiatives.

The Great Barrier Reef

Author: Ben Daley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113593441X
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Great Barrier Reef is located along the coast of Queensland in north-east Australia and is the world's largest coral reef ecosystem. Designated a World Heritage Area, it has been subject to increasing pressures from tourism, fishing, pollution and climate change, and is now protected as a marine park. This book provides an original account of the environmental history of the Great Barrier Reef, based on extensive archival and oral history research. It documents and explains the main human impacts on the Great Barrier Reef since European settlement in the region, focusing particularly on the century from 1860 to 1960 which has not previously been fully documented, yet which was a period of unprecedented exploitation of the ecosystem and its resources. The book describes the main changes in coral reefs, islands and marine wildlife that resulted from those impacts. In more recent decades, human impacts on the Great Barrier Reef have spread, accelerated and intensified, with implications for current management and conservation practices. There is now better scientific understanding of the threats faced by the ecosystem. Yet these modern challenges occur against a background of historical levels of exploitation that is little-known, and that has reduced the ecosystem's resilience. The author provides a compelling narrative of how one of the world's most iconic and vulnerable ecosystems has been exploited and degraded, but also how some early conservation practices emerged.

Biological Materials of Marine Origin

Author: Hermann Ehrlich
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400757301
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This is the second monograph by the author on biological materials of marine origin. The initial book is dedicated to the biological materials of marine invertebrates. This work is a source of modern knowledge on biomineralization, biomimetics and materials science with respect to marine vertebrates. For the first time in scientific literature the author gives the most coherent analysis of the nature, origin and evolution of biocomposites and biopolymers isolated from and observed in the broad variety of marine vertebrate organisms (fish, reptilian, birds and mammals) and within their unique hierarchically organized structural formations. There is a wealth of new and newly synthesized information, including dozens of previously unpublished images of unique marine creatures including extinct, extant and living taxa and their biocomposite-based structures from nano- to micro – and macroscale. This monograph reviews the most relevant advances in the marine biological materials research field, pointing out several approaches being introduced and explored by distinct modern laboratories.

Nature Unbound

Author: Dan Brockington
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136560564
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This groundbreaking volume is the first comprehensive, critical examination of the rise of protected areas and their current social and economic position in our world. It examines the social impacts of protected areas, the conflicts that surround them, the alternatives to them and the conceptual categories they impose. The book explores key debates on devolution, participation and democracy; the role and uniqueness of indigenous peoples and other local communities; institutions and resource management; hegemony, myth and symbolic power in conservation success stories; tourism, poverty and conservation; and the transformation of social and material relations which community conservation entails. For conservation practitioners and protected area professionals not accustomed to criticisms of their work, or students new to this complex field, the book will provide an understanding of the history and current state of affairs in the rise of protected areas. It introduces the concepts, theories and writers on which critiques of conservation have been built, and provides the means by which practitioners can understand problems with which they are wrestling. For advanced researchers the book will present a critique of the current debates on protected areas and provide a host of jumping off points for an array of research avenues

Managing Protected Areas

Author: Michael Lockwood
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136561757
Format: PDF
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This handbook, produced by world renowned experts from the World Conservation Union (IUCN), spans the full terrain of protected area management and is the international benchmark for the field. The book employs dozens of detailed international cases studies, hundreds of concise topical snapshots, maps, tables, illustrations and a colour plate section, as well as evaluation tools, checklists and numerous appendices to cover all aspects of park management from biodiversity to natural heritage to financial management. The book establishes a conceptual underpinning for protected area management, presents guiding principles for the 21st century, reflects recent work on international best practice and provides an assessment of skills required by professionals. As the most authoritative guide ever compiled to the principles and practice of protected area management, this volume is essential for all professionals and students in all countries and contexts.

Ocean Zoning

Author: Tundi Agardy
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849776466
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Our knowledge of the oceans is increasing rapidly, as more powerful tools for exploration and exploitation make it easier to locate valuable resources, such as fish stocks, oil and gas reserves, or sites for wind and hydropower schemes. At the same time competition for space has intensified, affecting marine life and people's livelihoods. Much has been written about marine management using marine protected areas, but MPAs are only a small subset of spatial management tools available. MPAs and MPA networks are better seen as starting points for more comprehensive spatial management, facilitated by ocean zoning. This logical scaling up from discreet piecemeal protected areas to larger and more systematic planning is happening around the world, but few are aware that we are entering a brave new world in ocean management with zoning at its core.This book provides guidance on using ocean zoning to improve marine management. It reviews the benefits of ocean zoning in theory, reviews progress made in zoning around the world through a wide range of case studies, and derives lessons learned to recommend a process by which future zoning can be maximally effective and efficient.Published with MARES, Forest Trends and UNEP