Foundations of Rational Agency

Author: M.J. Wooldridge
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401592047
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This volume represents an advanced, comprehensive state-of-the-art survey of the field of rational agency as it stands today. It covers the philosophical foundations of rational agency, logical and decision-theoretic approaches to rational agency, multi-agent aspects of rational agency and a number of approaches to programming rational agents. It will be of interest to researchers in logic, mainstream computer science, the philosophy of rational action and agency, and economics.

Foundations of Rational Choice Under Risk

Author: Paul Anand
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198774427
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Paul Anand describes and evaluates many existing criticisms of the formal theory of rationality and subjective expected utility (SEU) theory. He tests the logical and philosophical basis for basing rational choice on SEU and argues that, empirically, SEU is false, and that normatively, it imposes unnecessary constraints on rational agency. He provides his own account of rational choice which is grounded in the relationship between an agent's preference and his or her behavior. In addition, he discusses some of the radical methodological changes in economics that form the basis for theoretical developments in decision theory.

Agency and the Foundations of Ethics

Author: Paul Katsafanas
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199645078
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Paul Katsafanas explores how we might justify normative claims as diverse as 'murder is wrong' and 'agents have reason to take the means to their ends.' He defends an original account of constitutivism--the view that we can justify certain normative claims by showing that agents become committed to them simply in virtue of acting, and argues that taking this view promises to resolve longstanding philosophical puzzles about the metaphysics, epistemology, andpractical grip of normative claims. Katsafanas' account employs a nuanced theory of action, which draws on recent empirical work on human motivation as well as a model of agency indebted to the work ofNietzsche, in order to answer the greatest challenge for any constitutivist: he argues for a conception of action that is minimal enough to be independently plausible, but substantial enough to yield robust normative results.

At the Foundations of Bioethics and Biopolitics Critical Essays on the Thought of H Tristram Engelhardt Jr

Author: Lisa M. Rasmussen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319189654
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This volume brings together a set of critical essays on the thought of Professor Doctor H. Tristram Engelhardt Junior, Co-Founding Editor of the Philosophy and Medicine book series. Amongst the founders of bioethics, Professor Engelhardt, Jr. looms large. Many of his books and articles have appeared in multiple languages, including Italian, Romanian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Chinese. The essays in this book focus critically on a wide swath of his work, in the process elucidating, critiquing, and/or commending the rigor and reach of his thought. This volume compasses analyses of many different aspects of Engelhardt's work, including social and political philosophy, biopolitics, the philosophy of medicine, and bioethics. It brings together internationally known scholars to assess key elements of Engelhardt's work.

Economic Foundations of International Law

Author: Eric A. Posner
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674067630
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Exchange of goods and ideas among nations, cross-border pollution, global warming, and international crime pose formidable questions for international law. Two respected scholars provide an intellectual framework for assessing these problems from a rational choice perspective and describe conditions under which international law succeeds or fails.

Rational Ritual

Author: Michael Suk-Young Chwe
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400846439
Format: PDF, ePub
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Why do Internet, financial service, and beer commercials dominate Super Bowl advertising? How do political ceremonies establish authority? Why does repetition characterize anthems and ritual speech? Why were circular forms favored for public festivals during the French Revolution? This book answers these questions using a single concept: common knowledge. Game theory shows that in order to coordinate its actions, a group of people must form "common knowledge." Each person wants to participate only if others also participate. Members must have knowledge of each other, knowledge of that knowledge, knowledge of the knowledge of that knowledge, and so on. Michael Chwe applies this insight, with striking erudition, to analyze a range of rituals across history and cultures. He shows that public ceremonies are powerful not simply because they transmit meaning from a central source to each audience member but because they let audience members know what other members know. For instance, people watching the Super Bowl know that many others are seeing precisely what they see and that those people know in turn that many others are also watching. This creates common knowledge, and advertisers selling products that depend on consensus are willing to pay large sums to gain access to it. Remarkably, a great variety of rituals and ceremonies, such as formal inaugurations, work in much the same way. By using a rational-choice argument to explain diverse cultural practices, Chwe argues for a close reciprocal relationship between the perspectives of rationality and culture. He illustrates how game theory can be applied to an unexpectedly broad spectrum of problems, while showing in an admirably clear way what game theory might hold for scholars in the social sciences and humanities who are not yet acquainted with it. In a new afterword, Chwe delves into new applications of common knowledge, both in the real world and in experiments, and considers how generating common knowledge has become easier in the digital age.

Philosophical Foundations of Neurolaw

Author: Martin Roth
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 149853967X
Format: PDF, ePub
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As neuroscience continues to reveal the biological basis of human thought and behavior, what impact will this have on legal theory and practice? The emerging field of neurolaw seeks to address this question, but doing so adequately requires confronting difficult philosophical issues surrounding the nature of mind, free will, rationality, and responsibility. In The Philosophical Foundations of Neurolaw, Martin Roth claims that the central philosophical issue facing neurolaw is whether we can reconcile the conception of ourselves as free, rational, and responsible agents with the conception of ourselves as complex bio-chemical machines. Roth argues that we can reconcile these conceptions. To show this, Roth develops and defends an account of free will that identifies free will with the capacity to respond to rational demands, and he argues that this capacity is at the foundation of our thinking about responsibility. Roth also shows how the mind sciences can explain this capacity, thus revealing that a purely physical system can have the kind of free will that is relevant to responsible agency. Along the way, Roth critiques a number of arguments that purport to show that the kind of reconciliation provided is not possible. Roth concludes that though we should rethink our legal system in important ways, both in light of his account of free will and what neuroscience is poised to reveal, neuroscience does not threaten the law’s core commitment to responsible agency.

Kant and the Foundations of Morality

Author: Halla Kim
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739179012
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Kim examines the fundamental tenets of Immanuel Kant’s theory of morality structural-methodological point of view to highlight the activities of reason vis-à-vis the blind forces of brute nature. The study provides new perspective on Kant's thought to benefit studies of epistemology, modern philosophy, moral theory and philosophy, and ethics.

Intelligent Agents IV Agent Theories Architectures and Languages

Author: Munindar P. Singh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540641629
Format: PDF, Docs
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This carefully edited book constitutes the strictly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages, ATAL'97, held in Providence, Rhode Island, USA, in July 1997. The 25 revised full papers presented were selected from a total of 76 submissions. The book is divided into sections on methodologies, architectures and infrastructures, coordination planning and monitoring, formal methods, theories, and architectures and methodologies. Like its predecessors published in the Intelligent Agents series, this volume specifically focuses on the relationships between the theory and the applications of agents.