Evaluation of Fire Flow Methodologies

Author: Matthew E. Benfer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493928899
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This SpringerBrief offers careful assessments of the appropriateness and effectiveness of currently available methodologies for fire flow. It explains the water supply requirements for firefighting including rate of flow, the residual pressure required at that flow, and the duration that is necessary to control a major fire in a specific structure. First reviewing existing fire flow calculation methodologies in the U.S. and globally, the authors determine the new information necessary to validate the existing fire flow calculation methodologies. After identifying 19 methods from the U.S., UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New England, and Canada, two types of methods are evaluated: those for building planning based on fire and building code requirements, and those for on-scene fire service use. Building planning methods are also examined, including an explanation of the range of building variables that determine fire flow. A survey form for fire departments is provided to help fire departments identify key predictive features based on construction and building parameters. Researchers and professionals in fire engineering will find the recommendations in Evaluation of Fire Flow Methodologies valuable.

Development of an Environmental and Economic Assessment Tool Enveco Tool for Fire Events

Author: Francine Amon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 149396559X
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book investigates the feasibility of developing a tool that enables fire departments to estimate the value of their services to a community in terms of environmental and financial impact. This book provides a summary of this effort, which resulted in development of a prototype tool for fire department use. The impact of fire on a community is usually measured in terms of the number of fires, human casualties, and property damage. There are, however, more subtle impacts of fire that are not so easily estimated but contribute to the measure of overall performance of the fire service in protecting a community. While environmental and economic impact assessment methodologies exist as separate systems, they generally require a high level of knowledge that is outside the scope of most fire departments. A relatively simple methodology for estimating the environmental and economic impact of fires helps communities understand the degree to which fire department activities can benefit a community’s environmental and economic well-being. The scope and approach for this prototype tool is explained, including risk assessment, cost benefit analysis, life cycle assessment, integration and implementation, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. It includes multiple case studies and offers statistical support for future expansion of the tool. Fire service professionals will find this a useful new approach to presenting value in a community, as well as a method for examining their own financial and environmental plans.

Spatial Data Analysis

Author: Manfred M. Fischer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642217203
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The availability of spatial databases and widespread use of geographic information systems has stimulated increasing interest in the analysis and modelling of spatial data. Spatial data analysis focuses on detecting patterns, and on exploring and modelling relationships between them in order to understand the processes responsible for their emergence. In this way, the role of space is emphasised, and our understanding of the working and representation of space, spatial patterns, and processes is enhanced. In applied research, the recognition of the spatial dimension often yields different and more meaningful results and helps to avoid erroneous conclusions. This book aims to provide an introduction into spatial data analysis to graduates interested in applied statistical research. The text has been structured from a data-driven rather than a theory-based perspective, and focuses on those models, methods and techniques which are both accessible and of practical use for graduate students. Exploratory techniques as well as more formal model-based approaches are presented, and both area data and origin-destination flow data are considered.

Spain s Photovoltaic Revolution

Author: Pedro A. Prieto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441994378
Format: PDF
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The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or “energy profit” from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI

Fire Safety of Historical Buildings

Author: Gabriele Bernardini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319557440
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book applies a behavioral point of view to individuals’ fire safety in historic buildings. It outlines theoretical and operative issues, based on recent studies and international guidelines. Firstly, critical issues for Building Heritage fire safety are widely discussed, by including the modelling of human factor and man-environment-fire interference in these architectural spaces. A significant part of the book includes a discussion on emergency modeling and simulation. A source code for representing the fire evacuation process (including man-evacuation facilities interactions) is offered to the reader. Methods for effectiveness assessment of risk-reducing solutions are provided and tested in a case-study. Being a structured approach to occupants-related problems during a fire in heritage buildings, it offers an innovative methodology and practical examples that researchers and designers can use as a guide when proposing and testing solutions. Evaluation indexes for effectiveness assessment (also useful for future guidelines or handbooks) are included. Readers are encouraged to understand these indexes within the proposed approach, so as to extend their applications and possibilities of how to introduce human behaviors-based solutions in other fields. Lastly, attention is focused on the proposal and evaluation of low-impact and not-invasive strategies, such as ones based on wayfinding elements. From this point of view, the pros and cons of wayfinding systems are discussed: these are important today, especially for fire-safety designers, because of the ongoing innovations in this field.

Assessment of Total Evacuation Systems for Tall Buildings

Author: Enrico Ronchi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493910744
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This SpringerBrief focuses on the use of egress models to assess the optimal strategy for total evacuation in high-rise buildings. It investigates occupant relocation and evacuation strategies involving the exit stairs, elevators, sky bridges and combinations thereof. Chapters review existing information on this topic and describe case study simulations of a multi-component exit strategy. This review provides the architectural design, regulatory and research communities with a thorough understanding of the current and emerging evacuation procedures and possible future options. A model case study simulates seven possible strategies for the total evacuation of two identical twin towers linked with two sky-bridges at different heights. The authors present the layout of the building and the available egress components including both vertical and horizontal egress components, namely stairs, occupant evacuation elevators (OEEs), service elevators, transfer floors and sky-bridges. The evacuation strategies employ a continuous spatial representation evacuation model (Pathfinder) and are cross-validated by a fine network model (STEPS). Assessment of Total Evacuation Systems for Tall Buildings is intended for practitioners as a tool for analyzing evacuation methods and efficient exit strategies. Researchers working in architecture and fire safety will also find the book valuable.

Fire Resistant Geopolymers

Author: Les Vickers
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9812873112
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The book covers the topic of geopolymers, in particular it highlights the relationship between structural differences as a result of variations during the geopolymer synthesis and its physical and chemical properties. In particular, the book describes the optimization of the thermal properties of geopolymers by adding micro-structural modifiers such as fibres and/or fillers into the geopolymer matrix. The range of fibres and fillers used in geopolymers, their impact on the microstructure and thermal properties is described in great detail. The book content will appeal to researchers, scientists, or engineers who are interested in geopolymer science and technology and its industrial applications.

Thermal Performance Modeling of Cross Flow Heat Exchangers

Author: Luben Cabezas-Gómez
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319096710
Format: PDF, ePub
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This monograph introduces a numerical computational methodology for thermal performance modeling of cross-flow heat exchangers, with applications in chemical, refrigeration and automobile industries. This methodology allows obtaining effectiveness-number of transfer units (e-NTU) data and has been used for simulating several standard and complex flow arrangements configurations of cross-flow heat exchangers. Simulated results have been validated through comparisons with results from available exact and approximate analytical solutions. Very accurate results have been obtained over wide ranges of NTU and C* values in all cases. The proposed procedure constitutes a useful research tool for both theoretical and experimental studies of cross-flow heat exchangers. The following are the unique features of the book: - The monograph includes the computational code named HETE (Heat Exchanger Thermal Effectiveness) in Chapter 5. A version of this code is available for downloading. - The computational procedure could be used for reducing experimental data using the effectiveness - NTU (e-NTU) method in research and industrial laboratories. - Even after more than one century in heat exchanger research, the search for new flow arrangements with higher effectiveness still is an unsolved problem. The present methodology could be a useful tool in pursuing that goal.

Adapting to Climate Change

Author: Dania Abdul Malak
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319516809
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book examines the water-related impacts of climate change in the UNESCO Intercontinental Biosphere Reserve of the Mediterranean (IBRM) straddling Spain and Morocco. This is the first in-depth publication on a fascinating transboundary case study; while climate change effects are rather homogenous across the IBRM, differing socio-economic contexts, land-use patterns and policy frameworks in Spain and Morocco mean considerable variations in vulnerability and consequences for human security. The authors have produced a novel and integrated vulnerability assessment that combines hydro-ecological, socio-economic and policy analyses. The interdisciplinary approach and insights contained in this volume will appeal both to those interested in the integration of natural and social sciences as well as those working on water and climate change from academic, practical or policy-oriented perspectives.

Fire Hazards of Exterior Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components

Author: Nathan White
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493928988
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This SpringerBrief presents strategies for fire mitigation based on combustible assembly systems of exterior walls. Providing background information on common exterior wall systems, the mechanisms of fire spread, and case studies, it examines the difficulties in controlling a fire with several materials and assembly methods. The brief compiles information on typical fire scenarios which involve the exterior wall, along with further exploration into test methods, approval and regulatory requirements for the various assembly systems. Offering testing approaches for possible mitigation strategies, the brief takes into account that current commercial wall assembly systems are constructed to improve energy performance, reduce water and air infiltration, and allow for aesthetic design flexibility. Exterior Insulation Finish Systems, metal composite claddings, high-pressure laminates, and weather-resistive barrier systems all have components which directly impact the fire hazard. Recommendations for future exterior wall construction are based on identified knowledge gaps.