Civic Astronomy

Author: George Wise
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402026781
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The founding of the Dudley Observatory at Albany, N.Y., in 1852 was a milestone in humanity's age-old quest to understand the heavens. As the best equipped astronomical observatory in the U.S. led by the first American to hold a Ph.D. in astronomy, Benjamin Apthorp Gould Jr., the observatory helped pioneer world-class astronomy in America. It also proclaimed Albany's status as a major national center of culture, knowledge and affluence. This book explores the story of the Dudley Observatory as a 150 year long episode in civic astronomy. The story ranges from a bitter civic controversy to a venture into space, from the banks of the Hudson River to the highlands of Argentina. It is a unique glimpse at a path not taken, a way of doing science once promising, now vanished. As discoveries by the Dudley Observatory's astronomers, especially its second director Lewis Boss, made significant contributions to the modern vision of our Milky Way galaxy as a rotating spiral of more than a million stars, the advance of astronomy left that little observatory behind.

Adventures in Order and Chaos

Author: George Contopoulos
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402030401
Format: PDF, Kindle
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For many years I was organizing a weekly seminar on dynamical astronomy, and I used to make some historical remarks on every subject, including some anecdotes from my contacts with many leading scientists over the years. I described also the development of various subjects and the emergence of new ideasindynamicalastronomy. Thenseveralpeoplepromptedmetowritedown these remarks, which cannot be found in papers, or books. Thus, I decided to write this book, which contains my experiences over the years. I hope that this book may be helpful to astronomy students all over the world. During my many years of teaching, as a visiting professor, in American Universities (1962-1994, Yale, Harvard, MIT, Cornell, Chicago, Maryland and Florida) I was impressed by the quality of my graduate students. Most of them were very bright, asking penetrating questions, and preparing their homework in a perfect way. In a few cases, instead of a ?nal examination, I assigned to them some small research projects and they presented their results at the end of the course. They were excellent in preparing the appropriate slides and in presenting their results in a concise and clear way.

Light Pollution Handbook

Author: Kohei Narisada
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402026668
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Constituting the first holistic overview including practical remedies, this handbook provides the background needed by anyone grappling with the complex issue of outdoor lighting and its effects. It describes not only the problems that astronomers and other night sky observers face in reducing the problems of information loss due to light pollution, as well as the problems lighting technologists face in optimising outdoor lighting installations that cause little or no light pollution. The first part is directed to decision makers and managers of outdoor space and covers the areas of general interest, culminating in recommendations to reduce the impact of light pollution. The second part is directed primarily to scientists and engineers, as a support to the design and maintenance of outdoor lighting installations, with special reference to astronomical observations. Elaborating issues from the first part, these contributions include examples that refer to specific outdoor lighting projects and to more general policy and educational measures. Written for designers of lighting equipment and managers of astronomical observatories, but also aimed at the authorities and decision makers responsible for the organization and maintenance of the public space, it will serve a good purpose in graduate or postgraduate curricula for scientists, engineers, economists and law students. This handbook fills the gap that exists between astronomical textbooks, engineering texts and popular brochures about light pollution.

Measuring the Universe

Author: Stephen Webb
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781852331061
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Recounts the mathematical reasoning which was used to calculate first the size of the earth, then the solar system, and so on up to the universe.

Mathematics as a Tool

Author: Johannes Lenhard
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319544691
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book puts forward a new role for mathematics in the natural sciences. In the traditional understanding, a strong viewpoint is advocated, on the one hand, according to which mathematics is used for truthfully expressing laws of nature and thus for rendering the rational structure of the world. In a weaker understanding, many deny that these fundamental laws are of an essentially mathematical character, and suggest that mathematics is merely a convenient tool for systematizing observational knowledge. The position developed in this volume combines features of both the strong and the weak viewpoint. In accordance with the former, mathematics is assigned an active and even shaping role in the sciences, but at the same time, employing mathematics as a tool is taken to be independent from the possible mathematical structure of the objects under consideration. Hence the tool perspective is contextual rather than ontological. Furthermore, tool-use has to respect conditions like suitability, efficacy, optimality, and others. There is a spectrum of means that will normally differ in how well they serve particular purposes. The tool perspective underlines the inevitably provisional validity of mathematics: any tool can be adjusted, improved, or lose its adequacy upon changing practical conditions.

Encyclopedia of Nineteenth Century Photography

Author: John Hannavy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135873267
Format: PDF
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The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography is the first comprehensive encyclopedia of world photography up to the beginning of the twentieth century. It sets out to be the standard, definitive reference work on the subject for years to come. Its coverage is global – an important ‘first’ in that authorities from all over the world have contributed their expertise and scholarship towards making this a truly comprehensive publication. The Encyclopedia presents new and ground-breaking research alongside accounts of the major established figures in the nineteenth century arena. Coverage includes all the key people, processes, equipment, movements, styles, debates and groupings which helped photography develop from being ‘a solution in search of a problem’ when first invented, to the essential communication tool, creative medium, and recorder of everyday life which it had become by the dawn of the twentieth century. The sheer breadth of coverage in the 1200 essays makes the Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography an essential reference source for academics, students, researchers and libraries worldwide.

Kristian Birkeland

Author: Alv Egeland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402032943
Format: PDF, Docs
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This biography conveys the life and accomplishments of a Norwegian hero to the English speaking world, illustrating the beginnings of collaboration between science and industry. It shows how work in a small country laid the foundation for the green revolution.