Causation in Educational Research

Author: Keith Morrison
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136616403
Format: PDF
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Calls to understand ‘what works’ in education are being made the world over. We need to know not only ‘what works’ but under what conditions, how and why. Causation is central to this. Researchers, educationists, readers and users of research need to know the effects of causes and the causes of effects. This strongly practical book helps researchers and readers of research understand, plan and investigate causation in education. It guides readers through statistical matters, explaining them clearly and simply in words as well as numbers, and shows them how to investigate qualitative causal research in education. After introducing deterministic and probabilistic causation, the book shows how these can be researched in different ways. It explains: how to determine causes from effects and how to link theory and practice in causal research how to plan and conduct causal research in education how to analyze, present and interpret causal data, and the limits of causal understanding. Containing worked examples from both qualitative and quantitative research, Causation in Educational Research provides a manual for practice, underpinned by a rigorous analysis of key issues from philosophy, sociology and psychology. It will appeal to new and established researchers, readers of educational research, social science students and academics.

Research Methods in Education

Author: Louis Cohen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315456516
Format: PDF
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This thoroughly updated and extended eighth edition of the long-running bestseller Research Methods in Education covers the whole range of methods employed by educational research at all stages. Its five main parts cover: the context of educational research; research design; methodologies for educational research; methods of data collection; and data analysis and reporting. It continues to be the go-to text for students, academics and researchers who are undertaking, understanding and using educational research, and has been translated into several languages. It offers plentiful and rich practical advice, underpinned by clear theoretical foundations, research evidence and up-to-date references, and it raises key issues and questions for researchers planning, conducting, reporting and evaluating research. This edition contains new chapters on: Mixed methods research The role of theory in educational research Ethics in Internet research Research questions and hypotheses Internet surveys Virtual worlds, social network software and netography in educational research Using secondary data in educational research Statistical significance, effect size and statistical power Beyond mixed methods: using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to integrate cross-case and within-case analyses. Research Methods in Education is essential reading for both the professional researcher and anyone involved in educational and social research. The book is supported by a wealth of online materials, including PowerPoint slides, useful weblinks, practice data sets, downloadable tables and figures from the book, and a virtual, interactive, self-paced training programme in research methods. These resources can be found at: www.routledge.com/cw/cohen.

Key Concepts in Social Research

Author: Geoff Payne
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1446233898
Format: PDF, ePub
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`This clearly written and user-friendly book is ideal for students or researchers who wish to get a basic, but solid grasp of a topic and see how it fits with other topics. By following the links a student can easily and efficiently build up a clear conceptual map of social research' - Malcolm Williams, Reader in Sociology, Cardiff University `This is a really useful book, written in an accessible manner for students beginning their study of social research methods. It is helpful both as an introductory text and as a reference guide for more advanced students. Most of the key topics in methods and methodology are covered and it will be suitable as a recommended text on a wide variety of courses' - Clive Seale, Brunel University At last, an authoritative, crystal-clear introduction to research methods which really takes account of the needs of students for accessible, focused information to help with undergraduate essays and exams. The key concepts discussed here are based on a review of teaching syllabi and the authors' experience of many years of teaching. Topics range over qualitative and quantitative approaches and combine practical considerations with philosophical issues. They include several new topics, like internet and phone polling, internet searches, and visual methods. Each section is free-standing, can be tackled in order, but with links to other sections to enable students to cross-reference and build up a wider understanding of central research methods. To facilitate comprehension and aid study, each section begins with a definition. It is followed by a summary of key points with key words and guides to further reading and up-to-date examples. The book is a major addition to undergraduate reading lists. It is reliable, allows for easy transference to essays and exams and easy to use, and exceptionally clearly written for student consumption. The book answers the needs of all those who find research methods daunting, and for those who have dreamt of an ideal introduction to the subject.

Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy

Author: D. C. Phillips
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483364755
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Education is a field sometimes beset by theories-of-the-day and with easy panaceas that overpromise the degree to which they can alleviate pressing educational problems. The two-volume Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy introduces readers to theories that have stood the test of time and those that have provided the historical foundation for the best of contemporary educational theory and practice. Drawing together a team of international scholars, this invaluable reference examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them and presents them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, this work offers essays on cutting-edge research and concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Features: Over 300 signed entries by trusted experts in the field are organized into two volumes and overseen by a distinguished General Editor and an international Editorial Board. Entries are followed by cross references and further reading suggestions. A Chronology of Theory within the field of education highlights developments over the centuries; a Reader’s Guide groups entries thematically, and a master Bibliography facilitates further study. The Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references combine for strong search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic version. Available in a choice of print or electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy is an ideal reference for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary educational theory.

Research Methods in Practice

Author: Dahlia K. Remler
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483323587
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Second Edition of Research Methods in Practice: Strategies for Description and Causation sets an entirely new standard for presenting and learning research methods. The perspective gained from this text makes it a truly necessary tool for such applied disciplines as public affairs and administration, public policy, psychology, urban affairs, education, sociology, social work, business, public health, political science, economics, communications and criminal justice. Imbued with a deep commitment to make social and policy research methods accessible and meaningful, the Second Edition of Research Methods in Practice: Strategies for Description and Causation compels and inspires students to truly grasp the logic—and limits—of the latest research appearing in academic journals, government reports, and the media. Authors Dahlia K. Remler and Gregg G. Van Ryzin cover the most pertinent issues and methods, emphasizing the critical interpretation and practical application of research findings. Both causation and description—and the distinction between them—are emphasized and maintained thematically throughout the text. Concepts are taught through in-depth examples, such as “Fighting Malaria in Kenya,” “The U.S. Poverty Measure,” “The Fallout from Hurricane Katrina,” “Family Dinners and Teenage Substance Abuse,” and “The Effect of Poverty on Mental Health.” The realistic trade-offs, uncertainties, habits, and excitement of the research experience come through on every page. “This is the best text available for teaching students the fundamentals of research design and statistics, and for introducing them to the difficulties inherent in evaluation research and causal inference.” —Dave E. Marcotte, University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Bias and Causation

Author: Herbert I. Weisberg
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 0470631090
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A one-of-a-kind resource on identifying and dealing with bias in statistical research on causal effects Do cell phones cause cancer? Can a new curriculum increase student achievement? Determining what the real causes of such problems are, and how powerful their effects may be, are central issues in research across various fields of study. Some researchers are highly skeptical of drawing causal conclusions except in tightly controlled randomized experiments, while others discount the threats posed by different sources of bias, even in less rigorous observational studies. Bias and Causation presents a complete treatment of the subject, organizing and clarifying the diverse types of biases into a conceptual framework. The book treats various sources of bias in comparative studies—both randomized and observational—and offers guidance on how they should be addressed by researchers. Utilizing a relatively simple mathematical approach, the author develops a theory of bias that outlines the essential nature of the problem and identifies the various sources of bias that are encountered in modern research. The book begins with an introduction to the study of causal inference and the related concepts and terminology. Next, an overview is provided of the methodological issues at the core of the difficulties posed by bias. Subsequent chapters explain the concepts of selection bias, confounding, intermediate causal factors, and information bias along with the distortion of a causal effect that can result when the exposure and/or the outcome is measured with error. The book concludes with a new classification of twenty general sources of bias and practical advice on how mathematical modeling and expert judgment can be combined to achieve the most credible causal conclusions. Throughout the book, examples from the fields of medicine, public policy, and education are incorporated into the presentation of various topics. In addition, six detailed case studies illustrate concrete examples of the significance of biases in everyday research. Requiring only a basic understanding of statistics and probability theory, Bias and Causation is an excellent supplement for courses on research methods and applied statistics at the upper-undergraduate and graduate level. It is also a valuable reference for practicing researchers and methodologists in various fields of study who work with statistical data. This book was selected as the 2011 Ziegel Prize Winner in Technometrics for the best book reviewed by the journal. It is also the winner of the 2010 PROSE Award for Mathematics from The American Publishers Awards for Professional and Scholarly Excellence

Encyclopedia of Research Design

Author: Neil J. Salkind
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412961270
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"Comprising more than 500 entries, the Encyclopedia of Research Design explains how to make decisions about research design, undertake research projects in an ethical manner, interpret and draw valid inferences from data, and evaluate experiment design strategies and results. Two additional features carry this encyclopedia far above other works in the field: bibliographic entries devoted to significant articles in the history of research design and reviews of contemporary tools, such as software and statistical procedures, used to analyze results. It covers the spectrum of research design strategies, from material presented in introductory classes to topics necessary in graduate research; it addresses cross- and multidisciplinary research needs, with many examples drawn from the social and behavioral sciences, neurosciences, and biomedical and life sciences; it provides summaries of advantages and disadvantages of often-used strategies; and it uses hundreds of sample tables, figures, and equations based on real-life cases."--Publisher's description.

Scientific Research in Education

Author: Committee on Scientific Principles for Education Research
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309082919
Format: PDF
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Researchers, historians, and philosophers of science have debated the nature of scientific research in education for more than 100 years. Recent enthusiasm for "evidence-based" policy and practice in education-now codified in the federal law that authorizes the bulk of elementary and secondary education programs-have brought a new sense of urgency to understanding the ways in which the basic tenets of science manifest in the study of teaching, learning, and schooling. Scientific Research in Education describes the similarities and differences between scientific inquiry in education and scientific inquiry in other fields and disciplines and provides a number of examples to illustrate these ideas. Its main argument is that all scientific endeavors share a common set of principles, and that each field-including education research-develops a specialization that accounts for the particulars of what is being studied. The book also provides suggestions for how the federal government can best support high-quality scientific research in education.