Borehole Climatology

Author: Louise Bodri
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080545950
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Climate for the 21st century is expected to be considerably different from the present and recent past. Industrialization growth combined with the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and massive deforestation are well above the values over the past several decades and are expected to further grow. Air temperature is rising rapidly well as does the weather variability producing frequent extreme events. Six of the ten warmest years occurred in the 1990s. Temperatures predicted for the 21st century ranges well above the present day value. The time period of the last 100-200 years covered by the direct meteorological observations is too short and does not provide material to reliably assess what may happen over the next hundred(s) years. A faithful prediction of the future requires understanding how climate system works, i.e. to reconstruct past climate much further in the past. Borehole paleoclimatology enables climate reconstruction of the past several millennia, unlike proxy methods provides direct past temperature assessment and can well broaden the areal range to the remote regions poorly covered with meteorological observations. Considerable debates have recently focused on the causes of the present-day warming, i.e. to distinguish between the natural and anthropogenic contribution to the observed temperature increase, eventually to quantify their regional distribution. Complex interpretation of borehole data with the proxies and additional socio-economic information can hopefully help. On observed data taken in various places all over the world we demonstrate suitable examples of the interaction between the subsurface temperature response to time changes in vegetation cover, land-use (farming) and urbanization. Precise temperature-time monitoring in shallow subsurface can further provide the magnitude of the present-day warming within relatively short time intervals. As far as we know, there exists so far no book dealing entirely with the subject of the Borehole climatology. Only relatively rarely this method is mentioned in otherwise plentiful literature on climate reconstruction or on climate modelling. There are, however, series of papers focussing on various borehole--climate related studies in numerous journals (e.g. Global and Planetary Change, Climate Change, Tectonophysics, Journal of Geophysical Research, Geophysical Research Letters, etc). Time to time a special issue appears to summarize papers on this topic presented during specialized symposia. Key Features - Description of a new useful alternative paleoclimate reconstruction method - A suitable source of information for those wishing to learn more about climate change - Material for lecturing and use in the classroom - Ample practical examples of borehole temperature inversions worldwide - Ample illustrations and reference list - Authors have a good knowledge of the problem based on more than 20 years of experience, one of them actually pioneered the method Description of a new useful alternative paleoclimate reconstruction method A suitable source of information for those wishing to learn more about climate change Material for lecturing and use in the classroom Ample practical examples of borehole temperature inversions worldwide Ample illustrations and reference list Authors have a good knowledge of the problem based on more than 20 years of experience, one of them actually pioneered the method

Geothermics

Author: Vincenzo Pasquale
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319520849
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book, now in its second edition, offers a comprehensive and modern treatment on the background knowledge of heat transfer processes in the lithosphere. In the light of the success of the first edition, several chapters of the book have been revised and the book has been enriched with a new chapter on geothermal methods used for the inference of past climate changes.The book starts with a brief review of global tectonics and of the structure of the crust and upper mantle. Then the theory of heat conduction as well as the thermal properties and the methods for the determination of thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat are introduced. Subsequently the geothermal flow and the thermal state of the lithosphere and deep interior are analyzed. The formation, upwelling mechanisms, solidification and cooling of magmas, which can be a fundamental heat source in many geothermal systems, are reviewed. Analytical methods used for gaining information on heat and groundwater flow from the analyses of temperature depth data are also covered. Data and practical examples are supplied to facilitate the understanding of the different topics.The book is intended for Earth science graduate students and researchers.

The Polish Climate in the European Context An Historical Overview

Author: Rajmund Przybylak
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048131679
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Reconstruction of the climate variability of the past 500 years is a topic of great scientific interest not only in global terms, but also at regional and local levels. This period is interesting on account of the increasing influence of anthropogenic forcing and its overlap with natural factors. The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview summarises the results of research into climate variability based on a combination of instrumental, documentary, dendrochronological and borehole data from Poland. The first part of the book provides a Central European perspective of research in these fields, which forms the general background for a presentation of the state of the art of climatic change studies in Poland during the past 500 years (Part 2). This is followed by a selection of papers dealing mainly with different aspects of climate variability in Poland and Central Europe (Part 3). "This book is a valuable tool integrating Polish, Central and Eastern European climate research into the global context. It is, as such, a must for climate researchers worldwide." (Gaston Demarée, Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium) "This volume marks a significant step forward in our understanding of European climatic history." (Christian Pfister, University of Bern)

The Climate of the Arctic

Author: Rajmund Przybylak
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319216961
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book is a new and revised second edition of the book ‘The Climate of the Arctic’, published in 2003. It presents a comprehensive analysis of the current state of knowledge related to the climate of the Arctic, using the latest meteorological data. All meteorological elements are described in detail and an up-to-date review of the available literature for each element is given. Climatic regions are distinguished and described. The monograph also provides an account of the present state of research on climate change and variability in the Arctic for three time scales: the Holocene, the last Millennium, and the instrumental period. The book concludes with a presentation of the scenarios of the Arctic climate in the 21st century. This monograph is intended for all those with a general interest in the fields of meteorology, climatology, and with a knowledge of the application of statistics in these areas.

Climate Change Biology

Author: Jonathan A. Newman
Publisher: Cab International
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Climate change has moved from being a contested phenomenon to the top of the agenda at global summits. Climate Change Biology is the first major textbook to address the critical issue of how climate change may affect life on the planet, and particularly its impact on human populations. Presented in four parts, the first deals extensively with the physical evidence of climate change and various modelling efforts to predict its future. Biological responses are addressed in the second part, from the individual's physiology to populations and ecosystems, and further to considering adaptation and evolution. The third part examines the specific impact climate change may have on natural resources, agriculture and forestry. The final part considers research on the cutting edge of impact prediction and the practical and philosophical limitations on our abilities to predict these impacts. This text will be a useful asset to the growing number of both undergraduate and graduate courses on impacts of climate change, as well as providing a succinct overview for researchers new to the field.

The Climate of the Mediterranean Region

Author: P. Lionello
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0123914779
Format: PDF, Docs
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The Mediterranean region contains a diverse and interesting climate ranging from areas with permanent glaciers to areas of subtropical, semiarid regions. The region is potentially sensitive to climate change and its progress has environmental, social, and economic implications within and beyond the region. Produced by the Mediterranean Climate Variability and Predictability Research Networking Project, this book reviews the evolution of the Mediterranean climate over the past two millennia with projections further into the twenty-first century as well as examining in detail various aspects of the Mediterranean region’s climate including evolution, atmospheric variables, and oceanic and land elements. Integrated with this, the book also considers the social and economic problems or vulnerabilities associated with the region. Written and reviewed by multiple researchers to ensure a high level of information presented clearly, Mediterranean Climate Variables will be an invaluable source of information for geologists, oceanographers, and anyone interested in learning more about the Mediterranean climate. Written by leading experts in the field Presents clear, compelling, and concise evidence Includes the latest thinking in Mediterranean climate research

Paleoclimatology

Author: Raymond S. Bradley
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123869951
Format: PDF
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Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing Climates of the Quaternary, Third Edition—winner of a 2015 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association—provides a thorough overview of the methods of paleoclimatic reconstruction and of the historical changes in climate during the past three million years. This thoroughly updated and revised edition systematically examines each type of proxy and elucidates the major attributes and the limitations of each. Paleoclimatology, Third Edition provides necessary context for those interested in understanding climate changes at present and how current trends in climate compare with changes that have occurred in the past. The text is richly illustrated and includes an extensive bibliography for further research. Winner of a 2015 Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association A comprehensive overview of the methods of paleoclimate reconstruction, and the record of past changes in climate during the last ~3 million years Addresses all the techniques used in paleoclimatic reconstruction from climate proxies With full-color throughout, and thoroughly revised chapters on dating methods, climate forcing, ice cores, marine sediments, pollen analysis, dendroclimatology, and historical records Includes new chapters on speleothems, loess, and lake sediments More than 1,000 new references and 190 new figures Essential reading for those interested in how present trends in climate compare with changes that have occurred in the past