Adaptive Design Theory and Implementation Using SAS and R Second Edition

Author: Mark Chang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482256592
Format: PDF, Docs
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Get Up to Speed on Many Types of Adaptive Designs Since the publication of the first edition, there have been remarkable advances in the methodology and application of adaptive trials. Incorporating many of these new developments, Adaptive Design Theory and Implementation Using SAS and R, Second Edition offers a detailed framework to understand the use of various adaptive design methods in clinical trials. New to the Second Edition Twelve new chapters covering blinded and semi-blinded sample size reestimation design, pick-the-winners design, biomarker-informed adaptive design, Bayesian designs, adaptive multiregional trial design, SAS and R for group sequential design, and much more More analytical methods for K-stage adaptive designs, multiple-endpoint adaptive design, survival modeling, and adaptive treatment switching New material on sequential parallel designs with rerandomization and the skeleton approach in adaptive dose-escalation trials Twenty new SAS macros and R functions Enhanced end-of-chapter problems that give readers hands-on practice addressing issues encountered in designing real-life adaptive trials Covering even more adaptive designs, this book provides biostatisticians, clinical scientists, and regulatory reviewers with up-to-date details on this innovative area in pharmaceutical research and development. Practitioners will be able to improve the efficiency of their trial design, thereby reducing the time and cost of drug development.

Adaptive Design Theory and Implementation Using SAS and R

Author: Mark Chang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781584889632
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Adaptive design has become an important tool in modern pharmaceutical research and development. Compared to a classic trial design with static features, an adaptive design allows for the modification of the characteristics of ongoing trials based on cumulative information. Adaptive designs increase the probability of success, reduce costs and the time to market, and promote accurate drug delivery to patients. Reflecting the state of the art in adaptive design approaches, Adaptive Design Theory and Implementation Using SAS and R provides a concise, unified presentation of adaptive design theories, uses SAS and R for the design and simulation of adaptive trials, and illustrates how to master different adaptive designs through real-world examples. The book focuses on simple two-stage adaptive designs with sample size re-estimation before moving on to explore more challenging designs and issues that include drop-loser, adaptive dose-funding, biomarker-adaptive, multiple-endpoint adaptive, response-adaptive randomization, and Bayesian adaptive designs. In many of the chapters, the author compares methods and provides practical examples of the designs, including those used in oncology, cardiovascular, and inflammation trials. Equipped with the knowledge of adaptive design presented in this book, you will be able to improve the efficiency of your trial design, thereby reducing the time and cost of drug development.

Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials

Author: Scott M. Berry
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439825518
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Already popular in the analysis of medical device trials, adaptive Bayesian designs are increasingly being used in drug development for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, from Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis to obesity, diabetes, hepatitis C, and HIV. Written by leading pioneers of Bayesian clinical trial designs, Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials explores the growing role of Bayesian thinking in the rapidly changing world of clinical trial analysis. The book first summarizes the current state of clinical trial design and analysis and introduces the main ideas and potential benefits of a Bayesian alternative. It then gives an overview of basic Bayesian methodological and computational tools needed for Bayesian clinical trials. With a focus on Bayesian designs that achieve good power and Type I error, the next chapters present Bayesian tools useful in early (Phase I) and middle (Phase II) clinical trials as well as two recent Bayesian adaptive Phase II studies: the BATTLE and ISPY-2 trials. In the following chapter on late (Phase III) studies, the authors emphasize modern adaptive methods and seamless Phase II–III trials for maximizing information usage and minimizing trial duration. They also describe a case study of a recently approved medical device to treat atrial fibrillation. The concluding chapter covers key special topics, such as the proper use of historical data, equivalence studies, and subgroup analysis. For readers involved in clinical trials research, this book significantly updates and expands their statistical toolkits. The authors provide many detailed examples drawing on real data sets. The R and WinBUGS codes used throughout are available on supporting websites. Scott Berry talks about the book on the CRC Press YouTube Channel.

Monte Carlo Simulation for the Pharmaceutical Industry

Author: Mark Chang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439835937
Format: PDF, Docs
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Helping you become a creative, logical thinker and skillful "simulator," Monte Carlo Simulation for the Pharmaceutical Industry: Concepts, Algorithms, and Case Studies provides broad coverage of the entire drug development process, from drug discovery to preclinical and clinical trial aspects to commercialization. It presents the theories and methods needed to carry out computer simulations efficiently, covers both descriptive and pseudocode algorithms that provide the basis for implementation of the simulation methods, and illustrates real-world problems through case studies. The text first emphasizes the importance of analogy and simulation using examples from a variety of areas, before introducing general sampling methods and the different stages of drug development. It then focuses on simulation approaches based on game theory and the Markov decision process, simulations in classical and adaptive trials, and various challenges in clinical trial management and execution. The author goes on to cover prescription drug marketing strategies and brand planning, molecular design and simulation, computational systems biology and biological pathway simulation with Petri nets, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and pharmacodynamic models. The final chapter explores Monte Carlo computing techniques for statistical inference. This book offers a systematic treatment of computer simulation in drug development. It not only deals with the principles and methods of Monte Carlo simulation, but also the applications in drug development, such as statistical trial monitoring, prescription drug marketing, and molecular docking.

Adaptive Design Methods in Clinical Trials Second Edition

Author: Shein-Chung Chow
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439839883
Format: PDF, ePub
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With new statistical and scientific issues arising in adaptive clinical trial design, including the U.S. FDA’s recent draft guidance, a new edition of one of the first books on the topic is needed. Adaptive Design Methods in Clinical Trials, Second Edition reflects recent developments and regulatory positions on the use of adaptive designs in clinical trials. It unifies the vast and continuously growing literature and research activities on regulatory requirements, scientific and practical issues, and statistical methodology. New to the Second Edition Along with revisions throughout the text, this edition significantly updates the chapters on protocol amendment and clinical trial simulation to incorporate the latest changes. It also includes five entirely new chapters on two-stage adaptive design, biomarker adaptive trials, target clinical trials, sample size and power estimation, and regulatory perspectives. Following in the tradition of its acclaimed predecessor, this second edition continues to offer an up-to-date resource for clinical scientists and researchers in academia, regulatory agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry. Written in an intuitive style at a basic mathematical and statistical level, the book maintains its practical approach with an emphasis on concepts via numerous examples and illustrations.

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Author: Shein-Chung Chow
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203911341
Format: PDF, Docs
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Sample size calculation plays an important role in clinical research. It is not uncommon, however, to observe discrepancies among study objectives (or hypotheses), study design, statistical analysis (or test statistic), and sample size calculation. Focusing on sample size calculation for studies conducted during the various phases of clinical research and development, Sample Size Calculation in Clinical Research explores the causes of discrepancies and how to avoid them. This volume provides formulas and procedures for determination of sample size required not only for testing equality, but also for testing non-inferiority/superiority, and equivalence (similarity) based on both untransformed (raw) data and log-transformed data under a parallel-group design or a crossover design with equal or unequal ratio of treatment allocations. It contains a comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical procedures for sample size calculation that are commonly employed at various phases of clinical development. Each chapter includes, whenever possible, real examples of clinical studies from therapeutic areas such as cardiovascular, central nervous system, anti-infective, oncology, and women's health to demonstrate the clinical and statistical concepts, interpretations, and their relationships and interactions. The book highlights statistical procedures for sample size calculation and justification that are commonly employed in clinical research and development. It provides clear, illustrated explanations of how the derived formulas and/or statistical procedures can be used.

Multiple Testing Problems in Pharmaceutical Statistics

Author: Alex Dmitrienko
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781584889854
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Useful Statistical Approaches for Addressing Multiplicity Issues Includes practical examples from recent trials Bringing together leading statisticians, scientists, and clinicians from the pharmaceutical industry, academia, and regulatory agencies, Multiple Testing Problems in Pharmaceutical Statistics explores the rapidly growing area of multiple comparison research with an emphasis on pharmaceutical applications. In each chapter, the expert contributors describe important multiplicity problems encountered in pre-clinical and clinical trial settings. The book begins with a broad introduction from a regulatory perspective to different types of multiplicity problems that commonly arise in confirmatory controlled clinical trials, before giving an overview of the concepts, principles, and procedures of multiple testing. It then presents statistical methods for analyzing clinical dose response studies that compare several dose levels with a control as well as statistical methods for analyzing multiple endpoints in clinical trials. After covering gatekeeping procedures for testing hierarchically ordered hypotheses, the book discusses statistical approaches for the design and analysis of adaptive designs and related confirmatory hypothesis testing problems. The final chapter focuses on the design of pharmacogenomic studies based on established statistical principles. It also describes the analysis of data collected in these studies, taking into account the numerous multiplicity issues that occur. This volume explains how to solve critical issues in multiple testing encountered in pre-clinical and clinical trial applications. It presents the necessary statistical methodology, along with examples and software code to show how to use the methods in practice.

Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials for Predictive Medicine

Author: Shigeyuki Matsui
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466558164
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials for Predictive Medicine provides statistical guidance on conducting clinical trials for predictive medicine. It covers statistical topics relevant to the main clinical research phases for developing molecular diagnostics and therapeutics—from identifying molecular biomarkers using DNA microarrays to confirming their clinical utility in randomized clinical trials. The foundation of modern clinical trials was laid many years before modern developments in biotechnology and genomics. Drug development in many diseases is now shifting to molecularly targeted treatment. Confronted with such a major break in the evolution toward personalized or predictive medicine, the methodologies for design and analysis of clinical trials is now evolving. This book is one of the first attempts to contribute to this evolution by laying a foundation for the use of appropriate statistical designs and methods in future clinical trials for predictive medicine. It is a useful resource for clinical biostatisticians, researchers focusing on predictive medicine, clinical investigators, translational scientists, and graduate biostatistics students.

Introductory Adaptive Trial Designs

Author: Mark Chang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498717470
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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All the Essentials to Start Using Adaptive Designs in No Time Compared to traditional clinical trial designs, adaptive designs often lead to increased success rates in drug development at reduced costs and time. Introductory Adaptive Trial Designs: A Practical Guide with R motivates newcomers to quickly and easily grasp the essence of adaptive designs as well as the foundations of adaptive design methods. The book reduces the mathematics to a minimum and makes the material as practical as possible. Instead of providing general, black-box commercial software packages, the author includes open-source R functions that enable readers to better understand the algorithms and customize the designs to meet their needs. Readers can run the simulations for all the examples and change the input parameters to see how each input parameter affects the simulation outcomes or design operating characteristics. Taking a learning-by-doing approach, this tutorial-style book guides readers on planning and executing various types of adaptive designs. It helps them develop the skills to begin using the designs immediately.

Understanding Biostatistics

Author: Anders Källén
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119993504
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Understanding Biostatistics looks at the fundamentals of biostatistics, using elementary statistics to explore the nature of statistical tests. This book is intended to complement first-year statistics and biostatistics textbooks. The main focus here is on ideas, rather than on methodological details. Basic concepts are illustrated with representations from history, followed by technical discussions on what different statistical methods really mean. Graphics are used extensively throughout the book in order to introduce mathematical formulae in an accessible way. Key features: Discusses confidence intervals and p-values in terms of confidence functions. Explains basic statistical methodology represented in terms of graphics rather than mathematical formulae, whilst highlighting the mathematical basis of biostatistics. Looks at problems of estimating parameters in statistical models and looks at the similarities between different models. Provides an extensive discussion on the position of statistics within the medical scientific process. Discusses distribution functions, including the Guassian distribution and its importance in biostatistics. This book will be useful for biostatisticians with little mathematical background as well as those who want to understand the connections in biostatistics and mathematical issues.