Access to Medicine in the Global Economy

Author: Cynthia Ho
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199750181
Format: PDF, Docs
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Access to medicine is a topic of widespread interest. However, some issues that impact such access are presently inadequately understood. In particular, international laws require most nations to provide patents on drugs, resulting in premium prices that limit access. In Access to Medicine in the Global Economy, Professor Cynthia Ho explains such laws and their impact for a diverse group of readers, from scholars and policy makers to students in a variety of disciplines. This book explains and interprets important international agreements, beginning with the landmark Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS), but also including more recent free trade agreements and the pending Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA). Professor Ho addresses controversial topics, such as when a nation can provide a compulsory license, as well as whether a nation may suspend in-transit generic goods. The book also discusses how patent-like rights (such as "data exclusivity") prevent lower-cost generic medicines from entering into the marketplace and provides strategies for minimizing the harm of such rights. Clear explanations and diagrams, frequently asked questions, and case studies make these topics accessible to any reader. The case studies also provide a theory of patent perspectives that helps explain why access to medicine, though a universal goal, remains elusive in practice. The book aims to provide an important first step toward eventual workable solutions by promoting a better understanding of existing and future laws that impact access to medicine.

Human Rights and the WTO

Author: Holger Hestermeyer
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780199552177
Format: PDF
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This book examines one of the most controversial aspects of the world trading system: patents and access to medication and offers approaches to tackle the issue of how to better accommodate human rights in the trading system.

A Human Rights Framework for Intellectual Property Innovation and Access to Medicines

Author: Joo-Young Lee
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317187806
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book examines the relationship between intellectual property in pharmaceuticals and access to medicines from a human rights perspective, with a view to contributing to the development of a human rights framework that can guide States in enacting and implementing intellectual property law and policy. The study primarily explores whether conflicts between patents and human rights in the context of access to medicines are inevitable, or whether patents can be made to serve human rights. What could be a normative framework that human rights might provide for patents and innovation? Joo-Young Lee argues that it is necessary to have a deepened understanding of each of the two sets of norms that govern this issue, that is, patent law and international human rights law. The chapters investigate the relevant dimensions of patent law, and analyse particular human rights bearing upon the issue of intellectual property and access to medicines. This study will be of great interest to academic specialists, practitioners or professionals in the fields of human rights, trade, and intellectual property, as well as policy makers, activists, and health professionals across the world working in intellectual property and human rights.

Coalitions and Compliance

Author: Kenneth C. Shadlen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199593906
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Coalitions and Compliance examines how international changes can reconfigure domestic politics. Since the late 1980s, developing countries have been subject to intense pressures regarding intellectual property rights. These pressures have been exceptionally controversial in the area of pharmaceuticals. Historically, fearing the economic and social costs of providing private property rights over knowledge, developing countries did not allow drugs to be patented. Now they must do so, an obligation with significant implications for industrial development and public health. This book analyses different forms of compliance with this new imperative in Latin America, comparing the politics of pharmaceutical patenting in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Coalitions and Compliance focuses on two periods of patent politics: initial conflicts over how to introduce drug patents, and then subsequent conflicts over how these new patent systems function. In contrast to explanations of national policy choice based on external pressures, domestic institutions, or Presidents' ideological orientations, this book attributes cross-national and longitudinal variation to the ways that changing social structures constrain or enable political leaders' strategies to construct and sustain supportive coalitions. The analysis begins with assessment of the relative resources and capabilities of the transnational and national pharmaceutical sectors, and these rival actors' efforts to attract allies. Emphasis is placed on two ways that social structures are transformed so as to affect coalition-building possibilities: how exporters fearing the loss of preferential market access may be converted into allies of transnational drug firms, and differential patterns of adjustment among state and societal actors that are inspired by the introduction of new policies. It is within the changing structural conditions produced by these two processes that political leaders build coalitions in support of different forms of compliance.

The Global Politics of Pharmaceutical Monopoly Power

Author: Ellen F. M. 't Hoen
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789079700066
Format: PDF, Docs
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In The Global Politics of Pharmaceutical Monopoly Power, researcher and global advocate Ellen 't Hoen explains how new global rules for pharmaceutical patenting impact access to medicines in the developing world. The book gives an account of the current debates on intellectual property, access to medicines, and medical innovation, and provides historical context that explains how the current system emerged. This book supports major policy changes in the management of pharmaceutical patents and the way medical innovation is financed in order to protect public health and, in particular, promote access to essential medicines for all. The Open Society Institute provided support to translate this report into Russian.

A Neofederalist Vision of TRIPS

Author: Graeme B. Dinwoodie
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195304616
Format: PDF, ePub
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The TRIPS Agreement (Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights), introduced intellectual property protection into the World Trade Organization's multilateral trading system for the first time. This book examines its interpretation, its impact on the creative environment, and much more.

Interpreting TRIPS

Author: Hiroko Yamane
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847316336
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has become a global issue. The Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Agreement outlines the minimum standards for IPR protection for WTO members and offers a global regime for IPR protection. However, the benefits of TRIPS are more questionable in poorer countries where national infrastructure for research and development (R&D) and social protection are inadequate, whereas the cost of innovation is high. Today, after more than a decade of intense debate over global IPR protection, the problems remain acute, although there is also evidence of progress and cooperation. This book examines various views of the role of IPRs as incentives for innovation against the backdrop of development and the transfer of technology between globalised, knowledge-based, high technology economies. The book retraces the origins, content and interpretations of the TRIPS Agreement, including its interpretations by WTO dispute settlement organs. It also analyses sources of controversy over IPRs, examining pharmaceutical industry strategies of emerging countries with different IPR policies. The continuing international debate over IPRs is examined in depth, as are TRIPS rules and the controversy about implementing the 'flexibilities' of the Agreement in the light of national policy objectives. The author concludes that for governments in developing countries, as well as for their business and scientific communities, a great deal depends on domestic policy objectives and their implementation. IPR protection should be supporting domestic policies for innovation and investment. This, in turn requires a re-casting of the debate about TRIPS, to place cooperation in global and efficient R&D at the heart of concerns over IPR protection.

Bioproperty Biomedicine and Deliberative Governance

Author: Dr Katerina Sideri
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 0754677389
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The focus of this book is on regulatory agencies, such as the European Patent Office and the World Trade Organisation, and their role and function in the regulation of the bioeconomy. The author argues that the administrative culture and underlying ethical visions that underpin questions of governance and legal reasoning in the legitimate decision making by these regulatory agencies have far reaching consequences in many fields such as biotechnological and biomedical research.

India and the Patent Wars

Author: Murphy Halliburton
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501713981
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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India and the Patent Wars contributes to an international debate over the costs of medicine and restrictions on access under stringent patent laws showing how activists and drug companies in low-income countries seize agency and exert influence over these processes. Murphy Halliburton contributes to analyses of globalization within the fields of anthropology, sociology, law, and public health by drawing on interviews and ethnographic work with pharmaceutical producers in India and the United States. India has been at the center of emerging controversies around patent rights related to pharmaceutical production and local medical knowledge. Halliburton shows that Big Pharma is not all-powerful, and that local activists and practitioners of ayurveda, India’s largest indigenous medical system, have been able to undermine the aspirations of multinational companies and the WTO. Halliburton traces how key drug prices have gone down, not up, in low-income countries under the new patent regime through partnerships between US- and India-based companies, but warns us to be aware of access to essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries going forward.