A Concise Introduction to the Statistical Physics of Complex Systems

Author: Eric Bertin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642239236
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This concise primer (based on lectures given at summer schools on complex systems and on a masters degree course in complex systems modeling) will provide graduate students and newcomers to the field with the basic knowledge of the concepts and methods of statistical physics and its potential for application to interdisciplinary topics. Indeed, in recent years, statistical physics has begun to attract the interest of a broad community of researchers in the field of complex system sciences, ranging from biology to the social sciences, economics and computer science. More generally, a growing number of graduate students and researchers feel the need to learn some basic concepts and questions originating in other disciplines without necessarily having to master all of the corresponding technicalities and jargon. Generally speaking, the goals of statistical physics may be summarized as follows: on the one hand to study systems composed of a large number of interacting ‘entities’, and on the other to predict the macroscopic (or collective) behavior of the system considered from the microscopic laws ruling the dynamics of the individual ‘entities’. These two goals are, to some extent, also shared by what is nowadays called ‘complex systems science’ and for these reasons, systems studied in the framework of statistical physics may be considered as among the simplest examples of complex systems—allowing in addition a rather well developed mathematical treatment.

Statistical Physics of Complex Systems

Author: Eric Bertin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319423401
Format: PDF, Docs
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This course-tested primer provides graduate students and non-specialists with a basic understanding of the concepts and methods of statistical physics and demonstrates their wide range of applications to interdisciplinary topics in the field of complex system sciences, including selected aspects of theoretical modeling in biology and the social sciences. Generally speaking, the goals of statistical physics may be summarized as follows: on the one hand to study systems composed of a large number of interacting units, and on the other to predict the macroscopic, collective behavior of the system considered from the perspective of the microscopic laws governing the dynamics of the individual entities. These two goals are essentially also shared by what is now called 'complex systems science,' and as such, systems studied in the framework of statistical physics may be considered to be among the simplest examples of complex systems – while also offering a rather well developed mathematical treatment. The second edition has been significantly revised and expanded, featuring in particular three new chapters addressing non-conserved particles, evolutionary population dynamics, networks, properties of both individual and coupled simple dynamical systems, and convergence theorems, as well as short appendices that offer helpful hints on how to perform simple stochastic simulations in practice. Yet, the original spirit of the book – to remain accessible to a broad, non-specialized readership – has been kept throughout: the format is a set of concise, modular and self-contained topical chapters, avoiding technicalities and jargon as much as possible, and complemented by a wealth of worked-out examples, so as to make this work useful as a self-study text or as textbook for short courses. From the reviews of the first edition: “... a good introduction to basic concepts of statistical physics and complex systems for students and researchers with an interest in complex systems in other fields ... .” Georg Hebermehl, Zentralblatt MATH, Vol. 1237, 2012 “... this short text remains very refreshing for the mathematician.” Dimitri Petritis, Mathematical Reviews, Issue 2012k

Statistical Physics and Computational Methods for Evolutionary Game Theory

Author: Marco Alberto Javarone
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331970205X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book presents an introduction to Evolutionary Game Theory (EGT) which is an emerging field in the area of complex systems attracting the attention of researchers from disparate scientific communities. EGT allows one to represent and study several complex phenomena, such as the emergence of cooperation in social systems, the role of conformity in shaping the equilibrium of a population, and the dynamics in biological and ecological systems.Since EGT models belong to the area of complex systems, statistical physics constitutes a fundamental ingredient for investigating their behavior. At the same time, the complexity of some EGT models, such as those realized by means of agent-based methods, often require the implementation of numerical simulations. Therefore, beyond providing an introduction to EGT, this book gives a brief overview of the main statistical physics tools (such as phase transitions and the Ising model) and computational strategies for simulating evolutionary games (such as Monte Carlo algorithms on lattices). This book will appeal to students and researchers in this burgeoning field of complex systems.

Networks of Networks The Last Frontier of Complexity

Author: Gregorio D'Agostino
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319035185
Format: PDF, Docs
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The present work is meant as a reference to provide an organic and comprehensive view of the most relevant results in the exciting new field of Networks of Networks (NetoNets). Seminal papers have recently been published posing the basis to study what happens when different networks interact, thus providing evidence for the emergence of new, unexpected behaviors and vulnerabilities. From those seminal works, the awareness on the importance understanding Networks of Networks (NetoNets) has spread to the entire community of Complexity Science. The reader will benefit from the experience of some of the most well-recognized leaders in this field. The contents have been aggregated under four headings; General Theory, Phenomenology, Applications and Risk Assessment. The reader will be impressed by the different applications of the general paradigm that span from physiology, to financial risk, to transports. We are currently making the first steps to reduce the distance between the language and the way of thinking of the two communities of experts in real infrastructures and the complexity scientists. Although this path may prove to be long, it is extremely promising, both in extending our understanding of complex systems and in finding concrete applications that can enhance the life quality of millions of people.

The Universe as Automaton

Author: Klaus Mainzer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642234774
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This Brief is an essay at the interface of philosophy and complexity research, trying to inspire the reader with new ideas and new conceptual developments of cellular automata. Going beyond the numerical experiments of Steven Wolfram, it is argued that cellular automata must be considered complex dynamical systems in their own right, requiring appropriate analytical models in order to find precise answers and predictions in the universe of cellular automata. Indeed, eventually we have to ask whether cellular automata can be considered models of the real world and, conversely, whether there are limits to our modern approach of attributing the world, and the universe for that matter, essentially a digital reality.

Bursty Human Dynamics

Author: Márton Karsai
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319685406
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the introduction of conceptually different modelling approaches. The authors address all of these perspectives objectively, highlight their strengths and shortcomings, and mention possible extensions to them. The fifth chapter addresses the effect of individual heterogeneous behaviour on collective dynamics. This question in particular has been investigated in various systems including spreading phenomena, random walks, and opinion formation dynamics. Here the main issues are whether burstiness speeds up or slows down the co-evolving processes, and how burstiness modifies time-dependent paths in the system that determine the spreading patterns of any kind of information or influence. Finally in the sixth chapter the authors end the review with a discussion and future perspectives. It is an ideal book for researchers and students who wish to enter the field of bursty human dynamics or want to expand their knowledge on such phenomena.

Simulating Social Complexity

Author: Bruce Edmonds
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540938133
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Social systems are among the most complex known. This poses particular problems for those who wish to understand them. The complexity often makes analytic approaches infeasible and natural language approaches inadequate for relating intricate cause and effect. However, individual- and agent-based computational approaches hold out the possibility of new and deeper understanding of such systems. Simulating Social Complexity examines all aspects of using agent- or individual-based simulation. This approach represents systems as individual elements having each their own set of differing states and internal processes. The interactions between elements in the simulation represent interactions in the target systems. What makes these elements "social" is that they are usefully interpretable as interacting elements of an observed society. In this, the focus is on human society, but can be extended to include social animals or artificial agents where such work enhances our understanding of human society. The phenomena of interest then result (emerge) from the dynamics of the interaction of social actors in an essential way and are usually not easily simplifiable by, for example, considering only representative actors. The introduction of accessible agent-based modelling allows the representation of social complexity in a more natural and direct manner than previous techniques. In particular, it is no longer necessary to distort a model with the introduction of overly strong assumptions simply in order to obtain analytic tractability. This makes agent-based modelling relatively accessible to a range of scientists. The outcomes of such models can be displayed and animated in ways that also make them more interpretable by experts and stakeholders. This handbook is intended to help in the process of maturation of this new field. It brings together, through the collaborative effort of many leading researchers, summaries of the best thinking and practice in this area and constitutes a reference point for standards against which future methodological advances are judged. This book will help those entering into the field to avoid "reinventing the wheel" each time, but it will also help those already in the field by providing accessible overviews of current thought. The material is divided into four sections: Introductory, Methodology, Mechanisms, and Applications. Each chapter starts with a very brief section called ‘Why read this chapter?’ followed by an abstract, which summarizes the content of the chapter. Each chapter also ends with a section of ‘Further Reading’ briefly describing three to eight items that a newcomer might read next.

Effective Parameters of Hydrogeological Models

Author: Vikenti Gorokhovski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 331903569X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Geological models used in predictive hydrogeological modeling are not exact replicas of the objects they represent: many details related to structures and properties of the objects remain unknown. Those details may considerably affect simulation results. A provable evaluation of the uncertainty of hydrogeological and solute transport simulations are almost impossible. In this book the author describes how to obtain the best-possible results in simulations, based on the available data and predefined criteria that are turned into transforming mechanisms. The latter are mathematical expressions for evaluating model parameters supporting effective simulations. Examples of the mechanisms as well as methods of their evaluation are provided in this book. It is also shown how these mechanisms can be used for the interpretation of hydrogeological data. The first edition of this book was published in the series Springer Briefs in Earth Sciences.

Maximum Entropy Networks

Author: Tiziano Squartini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319694383
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is an introduction to maximum-entropy models of random graphs with given topological properties and their applications. Its original contribution is the reformulation of many seemingly different problems in the study of both real networks and graph theory within the unified framework of maximum entropy. Particular emphasis is put on the detection of structural patterns in real networks, on the reconstruction of the properties of networks from partial information, and on the enumeration and sampling of graphs with given properties. After a first introductory chapter explaining the motivation, focus, aim and message of the book, chapter 2 introduces the formal construction of maximum-entropy ensembles of graphs with local topological constraints. Chapter 3 focuses on the problem of pattern detection in real networks and provides a powerful way to disentangle nontrivial higher-order structural features from those that can be traced back to simpler local constraints. Chapter 4 focuses on the problem of network reconstruction and introduces various advanced techniques to reliably infer the topology of a network from partial local information. Chapter 5 is devoted to the reformulation of certain “hard” combinatorial operations, such as the enumeration and unbiased sampling of graphs with given constraints, within a “softened” maximum-entropy framework. A final chapter offers various overarching remarks and take-home messages.By requiring no prior knowledge of network theory, the book targets a broad audience ranging from PhD students approaching these topics for the first time to senior researchers interested in the application of advanced network techniques to their field.

Attracted to Conflict Dynamic Foundations of Destructive Social Relations

Author: Robin R. Vallacher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642352804
Format: PDF, Docs
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Conflict is inherent in virtually every aspect of human relations, from sport to parliamentary democracy, from fashion in the arts to paradigmatic challenges in the sciences, and from economic activity to intimate relationships. Yet, it can become among the most serious social problems humans face when it loses its constructive features and becomes protracted over time with no obvious means of resolution. This book addresses the subject of intractable social conflict from a new vantage point. Here, these types of conflict represent self-organizing phenomena, emerging quite naturally from the ongoing dynamics in human interaction at any scale—from the interpersonal to the international. Using the universal language and computational framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory in combination with recent insights from social psychology, intractable conflict is understood as a system locked in special attractor states that constrain the thoughts and actions of the parties to the conflict. The emergence and maintenance of attractors for conflict can be described by means of formal models that incorporate the results of computer simulations, experiments, field research, and archival analyses. Multi-disciplinary research reflecting these approaches provides encouraging support for the dynamical systems perspective. Importantly, this text presents new views on conflict resolution. In contrast to traditional approaches that tend to focus on basic, short-lived cause-effect relations, the dynamical perspective emphasizes the temporal patterns and potential for emergence in destructive relations. Attractor deconstruction entails restoring complexity to a conflict scenario by isolating elements or changing the feedback loops among them. The creation of a latent attractor trades on the tendency toward multi-stability in dynamical systems and entails the consolidation of incongruent (positive) elements into a coherent structure. In the bifurcation scenario, factors are identified that can change the number and types of attractors in a conflict scenario. The implementation of these strategies may hold the key to unlocking intractable conflict, creating the potential for constructive social relations.